OK front, two pronged approach to BitDBPlanaria: application developers in the spring?

 OK front, two pronged approach to BitDBPlanaria: application developers in the spring?

Recently, BitcoinSV (BSV) _unwriter in the anonymous developer community launched a number of underlying BitcoinSV development tools such as BitDB (block chain data management tool), BitSocket (real time message monitoring tool), and launched a heavy project – Planaria amoebae, to realize the vertical chain customization data block.

The tool once launched, it caused intense discussion in the community BSV. Then, Planaria specific bovine X where amoeba, the simple chat with you. Before the real talk about Planaria, we have some background knowledge needed to pave the way, such as flawed, welcome back comments.

1, block chain has become a chain of real databases may

Bitcoin blockchain in addition to storage based transfer information, can be attached to every kind of data, the specific way is through the op_return and op_pushdata operators. In the case of op_return, as part of the bitcoin transaction information, from the transaction initiator add no more than 40Byte content. Although bitcoin block size is limited, but the content of op_return bytes are behind the rapid growth year after year.

 OK front, two pronged approach to BitDBPlanaria: application developers in the spring?

The bitcoin monthly op-return script

Source: https://opreturn.org/

But due to the core development team for bitcoin bitcoin block size set the upper limit of 1MB, active limited data storage capacity bitcoin block chain itself. The chain of this line can only be handed over to the BCH database and BSV to practice, the spiritual leader of the BSV community is that Mr. CSW will overweeningly ambitious, the entire Internet into the BSV block chain, so the Internet has become the side chain of BSV.

The BSV single op_return operator can store the contents of the 100KB, the 100k content is enough to store tens of thousands of words long, resolution can also be pictures, even on the chain of the game, and now through the multiple transactions polymerization of op_return, has been able to deal with the chain data processing needs , such as the BSV recently released the chain store application, support up to 300MB single file upload. (chain of large file storage tools: https://add.bico.media/)

 OK front, two pronged approach to BitDBPlanaria: application developers in the spring?

The chain of large file storage tools: https://add.bico.media/

At present, 300MB has more than BSV a 128MB block size limit, but according to the expansion route of the BSV development team (512M May 2019; 2G November 2019; May 2020 No cap remove the block limit), the future will have the ability to store chain of any size data.

Storage function 2, block chain chain can do what?

You can write a diary in the block chain, encrypted storage, not afraid of leakage, permanent preservation.

 OK front, two pronged approach to BitDBPlanaria: application developers in the spring? Chain: https://bico.media/6c0fd6bc82865d65ca888b8f4532336c3c018745c4f53c591407d74f3e03c5fb notebook

You can build a web site in the chain block, no server, like the Internet archive that regularly grab included the world wide web application will need to permanently lose there.

 OK front, two pronged approach to BitDBPlanaria: application developers in the spring? No server chain website: https://alice.bitdb.network/

You can also launch a block Chain Project Gutenberg, the copyright has expired public domain books, the preservation of Digital Library in the chain, the shining moment of human civilization will be permanently burning in the virtual world.

Of course, you can also put the books all nodes of bitcoins stored in BSV, the permanent storage, can not be tampered with, bitcoin account security and contribute to the center.

In addition to the static storage function, block chain to the world is to provide a tamper proof of the real data sets, the statement is true, rather than the right, real represents one day an identity to a message in the chain, the permanent storage card.

Of course, you can also spread of illegal content. But because of the characteristics of block chain can not be tampered with, even now the data analysis technology can’t track your personal identity, but 10 years later, 5 years later?

Each piece of content will be with your digital signature, always exist in the network world. You can’t delete, you can’t deny.

Never forget the blockchain.

 OK front, two pronged approach to BitDBPlanaria: application developers in the spring?

Application developers can interact with real data block chain to build “triggered” program. However, this program works is not easy to realize the complex development process, so many programmers from _unwriter until the shot.

3, block chain from truly become chain database, is what? – block chain vertical database customization tool

BSV is committed to as much valuable information and data stored in the block chain, distributed, can not be tampered with, permanent preservation.

But at present the data in the block chain interaction between users and not very friendly. We can use a digital wallet, check the address balance. We can also through the blockchain browser, without the need for a large number of synchronous block data, query data exchange. But if you want to solve this problem below:

Check a particular address issued in 500000 after the block height all contains the output of op_return transaction, which is output with OK_Research characters.

Facing this kind of condition query, all block chain browser now will take the dog. BitDB, is to solve this problem arises.

 OK front, two pronged approach to BitDBPlanaria: application developers in the spring?

BidDB will block chain structured data stored in the MongoDB database, the user can through the search engine Bitquery to complete the blockchain data query, as we mentioned the complex query conditions.

These data will be structured, convenient for users, especially for developers to access and call, has very important significance for ecological construction will be for the entire community.

BitDB as the basic tools of a comprehensive, can handle the bitcoin system (BTC, BCH, BSV) of all the data. But for developers, the general will only care about the kind of data associated with your application, so the pre block chain data were selected to establish a simplified version of the BitDB for a certain type of data, which will greatly reduce the development cost of application developers.

So after BitDB, _unwriter also launched a series of personalized to meet the different needs of the BitDB simplified version of the tool. For example, specifically for the op_return information Babel, focusing on the area’s data Meta.

This simplification, we can say it is deformation.

In the absence of block size limit, block chain data on the cover and contain everything every segments, the data are sufficient to constitute a simplified version of the BitDB, even though _unwriter’s innate divine, born fierce, it is difficult to cover every aspect, every segments.

Thus, Planaria was born.

Planaria is a BitDB tool, developers can use the built up based on the BSV block chain on a wide variety of ‘class’ database, for segments quickly build a new variant of BitDB protocol, also can pay mode direct calls to other variants of the protocol, to achieve the results you want. Programmers can therefore be more energy from the bottom of the foundation for the development of the work will be extracted, creative investment in the application layer construction.

4, the conclusion

The legend of Nu Wa made people first nvwaniangniang personally with loess, light approach slow twist, crafted a humanoid. But not even the best, Nuwa superhuman powers, also produced only a few people. She put the rope into the mud, lift off, little in mud, becomes a villain alive and kicking.

Planaria _unwriter is used for the creation of a rope.

In BitDB and Planaria’s blessing, BSV ecological application layer developers expose fist time to.

Finally, it is worth mentioning that, although _unwriter is a dedicated BSV network developers, but because of the current BTC, BCH and BSV in addition to the block size limits, and other aspects have very big difference , so _unwriter has launched BitDB, BitSocket and Planaria, can be universal , does not rule out the future we will be in BTC and BCH see the tools based on applications.

At present we see BSV above the development of storage function chain based on the specific application is still in the experimental stage, and did not see the emergence of large-scale with the commercial prospects of application. With the continuous advance of the future expansion of the BSV, and the BitDB and Planaria tools such as the popularization of BSV and the bitcoin ecosystem will usher in what kind of change, is a very worthy of attention.

Thanks to the members of the BSV community ruczxc of this writing help.

Teacher said, 2.3 intelligent block chain contract, open the door for the blockchain, opened by passers hung

 Teacher said, 2.3 intelligent block chain contract, open the door for the blockchain, opened by passers hung

 Teacher said, 2.3 intelligent block chain contract, open the door for the blockchain, opened by passers hung

Intelligent contract mission: applications can be developed in the block chain. Block chain is no longer a simple books, coins, trading, accounting, but applications can be built by all kinds of fun and easy to use, so that the distributed business self organization possible. With the continuous iterative technique and perfect, which will bring the greatest future 20 years of business variables.

Teacher said:

The | Nun Killer

Produced | Alpaca block chain daily planet Beck chain chain chain of media economy

When you read the blockchain really following four characteristics, you will believe the blockchain can change the world.

4 function module block chain:

  • Cryptography technology

  • Distributed technology books

  • Intelligent contract

  • Pass card

Intelligent contract means that applications can be developed on the chain block

The future people contact block chain is all good fun DAPP applications, they do not need to understand what is the white paper, what is the consensus agreement, will only need to download the DAPP, login, start using it.

The DAPP application is based on the contract to develop intelligence. Android and apple system is the center of the above application called APP (Application), block chain pursuit to the center of the above application, called DAPP, is to the center of the APP (Decentralized Application).

Intelligent contract for the blockchain significance lies in : it makes the blockchain is no longer a simple coin currency speculation tool, more to the center of the demand of distributed business applications, through intelligent contract to achieve Chain block.

 Teacher said, 2.3 intelligent block chain contract, open the door for the blockchain, opened by passers hung

What is a smart contract?

Smart (Smart Contract) contract is not a new concept. In early 1995, Nick Szabo (Nick Szabo) is proposed. As a legal scholar, Nick to spread to the information by way of contract or the execution of the contract verification of intelligent computer protocol. Intelligent pursuit in the contract, no third party under the condition of credible transactions, these transactions can be tracked and irreversible.

 Teacher said, 2.3 intelligent block chain contract, open the door for the blockchain, opened by passers hung

The contract is a kind of intelligent, automatic execution of the computer program, the two sides agreed with the code confirmed, count words, execute automatically according to the program, who also don’t lie.

Intelligent contract’s mission is to solve the problem of trust and cooperation between the two sides. Let strangers can conflict free and transparent way to share anything of value.

Intelligent contract contract intention is to reduce operating costs, with lower cost advantage and higher efficiency: quick and simple, no trouble, no nonsense. When the default party needs to be executed in a clean manner, punishment, reduce the time cost and manpower during the execution of arbitration and loss.

 Teacher said, 2.3 intelligent block chain contract, open the door for the blockchain, opened by passers hung

In real life, and why they want to know too much, “goodwill” or “good character” cooperation, if not familiar with the people for the first time cooperation usually also find a man in the middle “guarantee”, is because of the credit process of cooperation between the two sides is too difficult, after the breach of contract claims is too high. So the Chinese people admire western society’s “credit system” and “contract spirit”, because there is no, so longing.

Block chain advantage is to trust, the blockchain spirit is “Code Law”, so the block chain has become the development and implementation of intelligent technology based on the best of contract.

 Teacher said, 2.3 intelligent block chain contract, open the door for the blockchain, opened by passers hung

A scene to let everyone know the beauty of the future intelligent second contract with the current embarrassment

For example, if Bob Andy borrow 1 million yuan to do business, say 1 years later with interest returned to Andy 1 million 100 thousand yuan, if does not expire, Andy put themselves in Beijing sell a house to pay back the money. A year later, Xiao Ming came to Andy Andy found money, business failure, lose everything, how to do?

On a case, in the current business environment is usually such:

 Teacher said, 2.3 intelligent block chain contract, open the door for the blockchain, opened by passers hung

The two sides signed a loan contract, find a lot of notary Notary office. A year later, if Andy business failure is not the money, the two sides first negotiated settlement, but failed, “the money is no one to death”. Xiao Ming Dun nightmare begins: to go to court, unfortunately Andy house also involves another dispute, case number consolidated. The court investigation, negotiation, trial, trial, appeal, trial, appeal to the court of final appeal……, and began another round of nightmare, began a long queue waiting……

(have the same experience tell me please raise their hands, Dun is the grandson……)

This is the ideal state of intelligent contract execution:

 Teacher said, 2.3 intelligent block chain contract, open the door for the blockchain, opened by passers hung

Intelligent contract represents a fair trade, in order, live and work in peace and sweet business scene, Xiao Ming and even don’t know Andy can also cooperate.

However, the current smart contract in real life is so embarrassing:

 Teacher said, 2.3 intelligent block chain contract, open the door for the blockchain, opened by passers hung

To go to the center of the environment, intelligent contract only between the digital version and there is a clear link between entities to replace the ordinary contract. That is to say, the ownership of the digital version should be established for each house, when the digital version of the house ownership change, house ownership entity must change. Popular, is a house in block on the chain transfer, in real life people and the government have to admit!

 Teacher said, 2.3 intelligent block chain contract, open the door for the blockchain, opened by passers hung

 Teacher said, 2.3 intelligent block chain contract, open the door for the blockchain, opened by passers hung

Intelligent contract

The data on how the chain chain execution is the current bottleneck, but not in despair!

The digital world through three paths in the real world:

1, through the government or authority at the center of the information database, for example, car, house property certificate, medical records etc..

Perhaps people with material civilization and spiritual civilization development strides, the concept of the state may be more and more indifferent. But in the realization of communism, national sovereignty should always exist. Therefore, some assets need to have the endorsement of the credibility of the government. Most of the physical assets to digital through the government’s “private chain” or “chain alliance” ownership and management. And the government as a “public servants” to provide a credible social service is the obligation, certainly is a part of “sunshine government plan”.

Fortunately, more and more government agencies in the application, and actively promote the blockchain in government affairs such as: the blockchain invoice, Shenzhen City, Hangzhou City Justice block chain. International UAE minister announced that it will implement in 2021 50% government affairs through the blockchain.

 Teacher said, 2.3 intelligent block chain contract, open the door for the blockchain, opened by passers hung

2, open up the encryption pathway of financial institutions such as currency, issued by the state of digital currency, large financial institutions issued stable currency and other qualifications.

Block chain is the pursuit of the efficiency of the business, business process is involved in the transaction process, the contract is the guarantee for the efficiency of the intelligent trading success, but also to protect the transaction fails (default) when the execution of punishment. This needs to be punished in the contract parties intelligent assets must be running and stored in the block chain, but this is the blockchain financial category, but also the most competitive commanding mechanism.

 Teacher said, 2.3 intelligent block chain contract, open the door for the blockchain, opened by passers hung

3, networking, data link hardware entrance

The Internet of things, that is embedded in all kinds of equipment in a sensor chip popular, can connect and exchange data with other equipment supervision when necessary. Including common in our lives: intelligent home networking applications, wearable devices, smart cars etc..

 Teacher said, 2.3 intelligent block chain contract, open the door for the blockchain, opened by passers hung

Each scan code scanning gun information, ultrasound detection information, each bottle of genuine products cover hot information, even every heartbeat, every kilograms of fat reduced 1, which played a piece of music, can be recorded, digital information, and when you need to block on the chain of wisdom data exchange agreement.

For example: the smart wearable devices to confirm your recent significant weight loss, health index increased significantly, these data will trigger your health insurance contract and insurance related to the intelligent reduce premiums.

The complexity and application of intelligent design is closely related to the requirements of the contract

 Teacher said, 2.3 intelligent block chain contract, open the door for the blockchain, opened by passers hung

On the way to a distant intelligent contract also crossed countless thorns

For smart contracts, some people Repeng, some people make complaints about. Some people say that the contract is not intelligent “smart”, is not the real “contract (contract)”.

Block chain, artificial intelligence, 5G network, 3D printing, IOT…… these new technologies are at a relatively early stage, from the large-scale landing application still needs a long way to go, there are many technical difficulties to be over. These views have some truth.

Intelligent contract is restricted by many technical bottlenecks such as transaction speed, file storage, modification mechanism, programming difficulty after the appearance of Bug is more reasonable and so on.

In the face of challenges, different people have different views:

  • Investors , is one of the few elite, they used to reverse thinking. Investors see the track, the track is not the focus of attention to the future direction of the track, there is no ceiling.

  • They block chain speculators , usually with the emotional price and currency, and the technology itself has little relationship.

  • Academics and opinion leaders , with their own knowledge structure and personality, negative people to the “bottleneck” as “desperate”, that “the future is hard to say;” positive people believe that as long as the mind does not decline, more solutions than problems”.

  • Block chain developers , for them “challenge that jobs”, as long as you can to get the program needs sooner or later can do, iterative chant, which technology is easy?

The majority of ordinary users is a new technology of users, the value of the product experience, it is too early, please Don’t make a fuss.

#DeleteCoinbase Shuabing encryption Twitter community user count Coinbase three “counts”

Coinbase recently too much, the US currency exchange user is head of encryption #DeleteCoinbase (twitter Shuabing uninstall Coinbase), an example or #DeleteFacebook and #DeleteUber.

This social media activities started about a week ago, the cause is proposed to analysis company Neutrino’s acquisition of Coinbase concerns. But really popular, mainly in February 28th, a man named Udi Wertheimer independent developers boost.

Sequence of events

According to the voice, it probably can be divided into 3 parts of the fuse label dispute.

The key in the cloud

In February 12th, Coinbase announced that its Coinbase Wallet user can be key to Google Drive and iCloud backup storage. Although the key to encryption Coinbase, but users do not seem to buy it, that cloud backup solutions have inherent risks, netizen said: “this is the most simple method of private key lost… You… From the previous icloud hacking middle school to what?” The same encryption currency exchange for the United States Kraken CEO Jesse Powell also commented that this function is training the users in poor security under the premise”.

Coin XRP

2 month 25 day, Coinbase announced its professional trading platform Coinbase Pro XRP (Ripple) on-line trading. But this approach has been widely questioned the encryption community, opponents say Coinbase is in violation of their digital assets listed on the framework, the framework layer of digital assets “provisions listed shall maintain minority ownership shares”, but as everyone knows is that the management team of XRP Ripple Labs control more than 60% of the equity.

In addition, XRP’s regulatory status is also very vague, in recent years, many people think that the creation and distribution of the XRP become unregistered securities, and may affect the future of SEC.

Of course, XRP is not listed in the Coinbase are the main reasons for public. In fact, Ripple supporters are more neutral dance for joy, the voice that the exchange for the customer contact an asset is not equivalent to support or approval of it.

Welcome to join the family team of hackers

The maximum power behind the #DeleteCoinbase, is actually in February 19th, Coinbase announced the acquisition of a company called Neutrino block chain analysis company, the company used public data to track the encrypted currency trading chain. Coinbase said in its statement, the Neutrino technology will help track the thieves and terrorists.

But soon it was found that many Neutrino members are former leader Hacking Team.

Hacking Team is a notorious repute Italy spy software company, in its history, Hacking Team in a proprietary remote control system (RCS) software as the center, its services will be sold to Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Sultan, Kazakhstan, Bahrain and Turkey and other places of the oppressive regime, help its supervision reporter, activists and dissidents Troy, this is a kind of Trojan malware, users can remote access to files, record keystrokes, pictures and read emails from any infected equipment; in some cases, the hacker team seems to lead to some Democratic activists imprisoned and even murder.

Then, in 2016, Hacking Team software involving crime, the government of Italy revoked the export license, thus its financial situation began to make ends meet; in the same year, Neutrino set up.

Opponents believe that the core value of these behaviors and the freedom and privacy of the opposite view. Although the Coinbase cloud service key and listed XRP sound different, but the relationship between Coinbase and the former hacker team almost suffered a common attack and contempt.


Public opinion gradually fermentation, according to social media analyst Geoff Goldberg collected data (and below, the initiator Wertheimer visualization) become the focus of more extensive discussion.

The exchange transfer amount has provided certain threshold wallet, too little money may not turn out the encrypted exchange, at the same time, the exchange is not allowed off the remaining balance of the account. In this regard, the campaign is taking the torch of lightning from the previous on twitter popular inspiration, he proposed a solution, which is called #DeleteCoinbaseTrustChain. Because Coinbase allows free transfer between existing accounts, so users can easily transfer their “balance” to another Coinbase user, and then close their accounts.

At present, the estimated number of users actually difficult to leave Coinbase. This exchange has tens of millions of users, Coinbase’s controversial move, especially its acquisition of the former hacker team, will ultimately destroy the trust of users, to the bottom line or change its leadership remains to be seen. However, the same as competitors, Gemini Kraken or will become the biggest winner.

Ethernet workshop successfully upgraded, but the core developers are gone

The hash sent (ID:hashpie), author: not broken, the daily planet authorized forwarding.

 Ethernet workshop successfully upgraded, but the core developers are gone

This morning, the long-awaited Ethernet upgrade in the 7280000th workshop of Constantinople finally block a historic step, the block bonus reduced to two, reduce the amount of more than 4000 pieces of nissan. And this was hard bifurcation coordinator, block reward adjustment scheme for people, the etheric Fang Gorli test network sponsor Afri Schoedon, but as an outsider to witness this moment.

From the beginning of 2015, working as the etheric square community for nearly four years of Afri Schoedon officially announced last month at No. 19, “coordination, I no longer serve as the etheric Fang forked no longer engaged in hard work to build test network, Ethernet square will no longer provide other contributions.” Subsequently, Mar, a Paula and other open letter developers jointly issued the reasons from the community due to the “network of violence”.

 Ethernet workshop successfully upgraded, but the core developers are gone

Photograph: Reddit

And announced on the same day as the etheric Fang (Ethereum Cat Herders) cat herder in the three meeting of the organization of records, the etheric Fang foundation Community Relations Manager Hudson Jameson confirmed, Afri Schoedon has been a period of rest, no project updates recently; prior to the two meeting of Afri are present, and after he announced its withdrawal from the previous week, cat herder meeting just proposed to set up to assist Afri implementation and coordination and monitoring of the EIP bifurcation hard task related sub committee.

 Ethernet workshop successfully upgraded, but the core developers are gone

But according to the two GitHub project information has been in 10 days ago by Afri Schoedon off

The Afri Schoedon has never intended to. But it is a network of violence triggered by the “tragedy”, rather it is a field due to inability to reach consensus on the simmering outbreak, the fuse has already gone.

This is a simmering outbreak

11 2015, at the University of Potsdam read Master of science Afri Schoedon began with the code for Ethernet square, has less than 4 years, he served as the main square Ethernet client Parity release manager, the bifurcation of the hard Constantinople coordinator, 9 2018 he called on the community to establish a Ethernet network Gorli square test more general, in this upgrade he also proposed and implemented the EIP 1234 proposal. This one, in addition to working in Parity income, Afri all other contributions are free.

Although Afri is a veteran of the etheric Fang characters developers, but he is also a very controversial.

In 2017 November, called devops199 developers a loophole in the repair of the Parity on the client, missed the false claims ownership of smart contract library, then the database of self destruction, so that was worth $320 million in 513 thousand ETH were frozen, nearly 600 purse owners suffered a financial loss and failure degree. Because the Ethernet protocol does not allow self recovery workshop contracts, so in order to solve this problem, Afri Schoedon wrote a EIP-999 proposal and suggestions to upgrade the Parity software through the patch recovery signature contract library is deleted, to allow users to access the account is frozen.

But in the end, due to a software upgrade may lead to community and the etheric double forked square code concerns, EIP-999 plans to abortion. But it is enough to Afri into the swirl of controversy.

First of all, the funds have been frozen in this matter there are several key points worth noting is:

  • The incident was most affected by the ICO Polkadot project has just completed, the project to raise funds 60% stored in the affected Parity wallet;

  • Polkadot project sponsor is CTO, Parity, Ethernet square Founder Gavin Wood;

  • Afri Schoedon, former head of communications technology company Parity, paid for their work;

It is self-evident which interests. Therefore, some people questioned the “emergency measures EIP999 of a bankrupt enterprise financial aid, to prevent it from collapsing.”

 Ethernet workshop successfully upgraded, but the core developers are gone

Photograph: Reddit

Since then the relationship between Afri Schoedon and Polkadot projects are more or less will be the focus of attention. 2 14, a hard bifurcation was postponed in our workshop in the etheric, Afri remarks once again detonated community dissatisfaction, he said in a posting on Twitter: “Polkadot has reached the etheric Fang version will be to achieve the effect of peace.” What is the Polkadot over Ethernet square? This is a Afri, immediately became the object of condemnation.

 Ethernet workshop successfully upgraded, but the core developers are gone

 Ethernet workshop successfully upgraded, but the core developers are gone

Photograph: Reddit

Afri Schoedon is the most criticized is, “he said to the present square chain beacon Ethernet will need at least 18 months, which reveals his true hidden secrets. He is to delay, so his Polkadot to get more attention.”

We found that the more the core contradiction between the Afri and the community, it is necessary to postpone the implementation difficulty whether bombs and upgrade the attitude of the etheric fang. Some analysts believe that, in mid October last year, Fang did not like about Ethernet hard bifurcation activation, because the EIP1234 protocol will block reward proposed by Afri is decreased from 3ETH to 2ETH, and the difficulty of the bomb 12 months later by the contents of the miners boycott, resulting in not enough nodes to upgrade the software.

In fact, in an interview with coindesk Afri, he expressed the hope that the idea of bomb difficulty postponed indefinitely:

“I don’t want to have personal treatment difficulty of the bomb, the quiet version does not appear in this year, next year is likely to see. So, why are you looking for trouble? The difficulty of the bomb waste developers time to discuss another proposal every bifurcation. Since the hybrid POS is no longer our plan, so we will not need to use the bomb to encourage miners to migrate to the difficulty of beacon chain.”

However, this did not get recognized by other members of the community. The blockchain developer Jochem Brouwer said: “there is no difficulty bomb, the miners have no incentive to upgrade their nodes, and that only after the bifurcation of Ethernet is now the square public. But now the miners can easily through the entire network nodes do not upgrade to hijack.”

Reddit user JamesE8 is said at the forum:

“Afri orchestrated a variety of delaying tactics, in Parity and Polkadot’s help, found bug so much, that he is very want. No one can avoid temptations of power and money, I’m sure that Afri will upgrade Constantinople five months later is completely out of his own property and status of consideration, he wants to extend Parity and Polkadot. Was postponed in January after the upgrade, Ethernet square price from $157 down to $101, so that our community lost $6 billion this delay.”

 Ethernet workshop successfully upgraded, but the core developers are gone

Photograph: Reddit

So accurately speaking, Afri is not the main reason for leaving the network of violence, but grudges have long conflict and unable to reach a consensus.

The ideal community Ethernet square

Although at present, we have not been able to prove that Afri Schoedon and Polkadot projects are directly related to the evidence, but its relationship with Parity and his attitude to Polkadot, do not let people believe that the rationality of netizens speculation. But the relationship between Afri Schoedon and Polkadot and the tangled, perhaps more worthy of our attention is the relationship between the etheric and square community developers.

Ethernet square community has been hoping to become a world different from the team construction of the community, founder of the V God is still on twitter, expressed the hope that dilute their role and influence in the community. As a radical liberal, he believes that a true believer is concerned with a technology can transform the ideal society paradigm.

But with the technical belief oriented developer community, most developers are free contribution, this relationship is actually very fragile, but developers lose confidence in the community, a statement they can leave without restraint. So far, although the etheric Fang has 250 thousand developers, is also the largest block chain developer community to the center, but the loss of core personnel absolutely is one of the important reasons for the slow progress of the etheric fang.

 Ethernet workshop successfully upgraded, but the core developers are gone

Photograph: Twitter.

In fact, since the concept of core developers because of the contradictions and leave the etheric workshop, Afri Schoedon is not the first person.

Gavin Wood, co-founder of early Ethernet square “,” yellow book written by Fang ether. The first born in the etheric square for two years, Gavin almost single handedly built infrastructure Ethernet Fang all, including the prototype design, code and early client. But at the end of 2015, he chose to leave the etheric workshop, founded now occupies nearly 40% network node Parity client. Gavin Wood said: “I have a vague idea with Jeff and Vitalik at the time, to work together, will develop this platform from the etheric Fang grow, become the company’s foundation. But in the end I only do”.

Leave at Gavin before Wood, Ethernet Fang early developer Charles Hoskinson. At first, he hopes the etheric form a square with risk investment support entity development agreement, and then to the sale by a non-profit organization, but in June 2014 V God led the establishment of a nonprofit foundation to ensure the workshop of Ethernet, Ethernet infrastructure can square fair work independently. According to the business model of the dispute to the etheric Fang Charles Hoskinson exit. After leaving the etheric Fang, he and was responsible for the management and operation of Jeremy Ethernet square matters Wood co founded IOHK Cardano company, and issued ADA.

In February 18, when the Parity 513 thousand Ethernet Ethernet Fang Fang wallet is frozen, developer Dan Phifer proposed EIP867 solutions, this scheme requires the user to the original software upgrade and re allocation of fund balance. But this solution may exist due to legal problems, ultimately rejected. The present scheme leads to leave the core developer Yoichi Hirai, “he wrote some EIP editing of this draft legal consequences very calm in the GitHub, but I warned them, but I can’t do anything to stop them, but my warning is so weak, so I quit the EIP code editor position.”

In the current currency circle, no one seems to be able to reach a perfect balance between developers and loyalty to the center. He is behind the bitcoin development team bitcoin core has funded companies like Blockstream, Blockstream is a focus on the side chain technology development company, they not only develop the side chain also encourages employees to take bitcoin code maintenance work, and they must hold bitcoin, the purpose of this is to enable the formation of a common link between the interests of developers and companies with bitcoin, although this helps ensure developers but stickiness, to the common interests of oriented community who ultimately represent the interests?

Developer technical realization of anxiety

In the encryption monetary areas, hundreds of millions of profits before driving, developers will be more or less by the interests of the behavior. Especially in such as Ethernet to Fang mode based volunteer community, developers tend to like the Afri Schoedon that is suspected of entrainment contraband. We see the developers behind the stand may be their anxiety on the realization of technology.

The U.S. venture capital firm USV partner Albert Wagner said:

“Since the agreement by way of making money as long as one, that is the development and sale of software based on the protocol; but encryption currency provides a cash directly in the protocol layer, and with the increasing application of the protocol based on the underlying protocol becomes more abundant, the ability will be more and more strong that is reflected in the digital currency is more and more high price.”

From this point of view, in the impetuous currency circle even steadfast developers can easily develop anxiety, especially outstanding business ability and clear the KOL, they are the founder of block chain project, but also is the direct beneficiaries of huge profits, when this kind of anxiety is reflected in the development work, again through the social networking platform is magnified, involving multi stakeholder comments once issued, will eventually turn out a great in strength and impetus of collective condemnation.

In fact, the open-source developer community is like a dream and the interests of the arena, when in the arena of money and faith is dead, is almost not bound to leave the top contributor, while technology developers do not need to worry near way, but only a chicken hair to solve community the decide on what path to follow? Just like today’s Ethernet square, after the core developers have been away from home, when will we see the etheric Fang real tranquility?

Reference material´╝Ü

[1]Apatheticco, “Afri on the etheric Fang: goodbye, from” breaking up “is still the friend”, Babbit

The [2]Unitimes era, “Gavin Wood: I and ether workshop of two or three” chain, smell

The [3] block chain “chief of bitcoin developers is how to make money? “Mars, finance

[4] “Open Letter: The Ethereum Community Calls for End to Threats and” Toxic “Behavior” breakermag.com.

The number of capital market volatility will rise this year, also hidden many innovative applications of opportunity

 The number of capital market volatility will rise this year, also hidden many innovative applications of opportunity

In the shock stage at the bottom of the market in the digital assets, a digital asset management team in the field of information storage provides security suitable for users, help many users through a difficult period.

CoinBank analyst Jack Gu said in the email to the client, expected volatility hit digital asset market last year will continue to increase; in a stable currency, lending, quantitative and other market segments, the rapidly changing market environment and the rapid development of the business environment, should provide more opportunities for capital allocation.

Jack Gu said he to the digital asset market is very optimistic about the business opportunities. Jack Gu through three key indicators to observe macro risk factors: traditional finance and assets are “digital fusion” solution, national regulators are able to reach an agreement, the two digital currency market uncertainty risk will stabilize. In 2019, the major financial services institutions bitcoin expressed a bearish view but for digital assets with innovation, but gradually began to appear. Jack Gu believes that bitcoin had a negative impression on people, but with the passage of time, will start to fade.

In 2019, digital assets and the financial sector are combined to some hedge funds, investment banks and asset management agreement.

The financial giant JP Morgan before a report to the customer said: “whether they are financial institutions or the non bank competitors, are facing the risk of their payment processing and other services may be digital currency interference, the application of these technologies do not need an intermediary.”

JP Morgan, continued or increased competition, including J.P. Morgan will give products and services, bring the price and cost of downward pressure, causing it to lose market share, because to do cross-border use of digital assets, is really very convenient.

Bank of America in the annual report recently, and talked about the digital assets in the financial sector will bring the threat, the report said: “we are facing increasingly fierce competition in the financial services industry, customers may choose speculative or risky products, and we bring threats, such as digital assets.”

CoinBank analysis of the use of digital assets application mode, risk will cause the traditional investment banking itself, CoinBank analyst Jack Gu said: in the traditional investment bank with digital assets, more is to consider the efficiency of internal processing, settlement and other issues, if you want to take to reduce the threat of new technology, traditional investment banking should be used in Internet service, digital assets, payment system and other multi input costs, and try to break through.

From the industry on the whole, the turbulent years 2018 has been over 3 months 2019 years, what is the performance opportunities, but also the need for observation, this period can not avoid the black swan event will occur, and for the team in the field of digital assets, is to provide storage service better for customers to reduce the risk of customers.

Do not tamper with, encryption and risk | inflection point has to be dense, the rise of the agreement

Distributed risk state machine arpanet-

Many of our friends to read now, probably for the blockchain or vague impression. From the beginning we talked about cooperation, game theory, and on this basis, expounds some viewpoints for our future economic and organizational changes. However, details about the block chain technology, we are only in the distribution and consensus in the chapter abstracts five one of the most essential points.

Let’s take a look at, they are on behalf of the group reached a decision (consensus) end can not be tampered with, open source and open, and individual interests (distribution) encryption, motivation and coordination is expected to end, in addition to the above four technologies for the development of P2P transmission network.

The core of these two can not be tampered with and encryption, but also because of their presence, so get some out of the ordinary block chain. Or, if we will construct the block chain system is regarded as an extremely delicate building, then let the building to achieve the essence of the immortal status in the history of human civilization, from the non tampering and encryption.

We often hear the blockchain will subvert the Internet such remarks, but in fact, in addition to these two technologies, the other three already exists in the Internet structure. Even the two itself and the original is not what Nakamoto, they are more or less in the age of the Internet has had a lot of related application. In addition, we should also understand that almost all of the block chain project, actually is to build upon our existing internet.

As we have mentioned in this article, the block chain is to convert the original database into square grid storage, and to the structure of the one-way chain (DAG that is connected to the directed acyclic graph arrangement and the different, also is being applied to solve similar problems and hope to use block chain of the scene but, whether it belongs to a block chain remains controversial).

After forty years of development, has gathered a lot of valuable data. Block chain technology is original, rearrange the distribution mechanism through the data storage and production, the further release of kinetic energy of these data, and solve the existing network system, data security, authenticity, liquidity, asset pricing and data ownership, individual data privacy issues. Of course, if properly designed, it will also further promote all physical digital process.

Digital machine more powerful, is devouring between groups and individuals had clear boundary, originally belonging to the interests of the individual is the giant machine constantly eroded. Born in the community in the block chain, from the outset, contains more value for individual attention, from this perspective, the core value that is for our further towards digital world to create a more accurate risk allocation of state machine, in order to better balance the interests of the two, at the same time reduce the risk coefficient the whole system.

Block chain technology to Nakamoto as the representative of the early pioneers in the birth of the Internet began shortly after the above exploration, and finally found the weapons in Cryptography (state machine). No theory of tampering and encryption technology is ultimately derived from cryptography. Because there is a great deal of contact between the block chain and the Internet, and to some extent it is a continuation and upgrade of the Internet, so before talking about the block chain technology, let us complete understanding about the development process of the internet.

The earliest Internet from the United States Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). In 1969, two units were delivered to the information processor of University of California at Los Angeles and the Graduate School of the Stanford University, the first attempt to use more than 350 miles of rental telephone line communication. This is by the agency led the development of the ARPANET (APRANET) of the first transmission, ARPANET is the rudiment of today we the widespread use of the internet.

 Do not tamper with, encryption and risk | inflection point has to be dense, the rise of the agreement

The reason for the birth of the Internet, from the five century, in 60s the Soviet Union during the cold war, the U.S. military construction anti nuclear strike communication system. Writing at the University of Cambridge’s Jonny Ryan Internet history books “” centrifugal force, described the Rand Co to avoid reform one-time destruction and the traditional central network may encounter attack.

He wrote in 1962 in “on distributed communications network” in the memorandum, he described this with no central point, and the working principle of distributed network redundancy can be used for the. With this model, even if the enemy destroyed a large range of communication facilities, the U.S. can still reliably command nuclear forces with the remaining nodes.

This is a very radical idea at the time, if Balaam mentioned the theory to work, is constructed in the hundreds of years of strong centralized paradigm of industrial system, to construct a completely different from the previous digital ecology. In order to achieve the above ideas, to both unrelated subjects, combined with computer and communication.

In the us today seems very unbelievable, we engaged in financial work of science and technology and many friends all know this English abbreviation TMT (Technology, Media, Telecom, is referred to as science and technology, media and communications industry), but in a few decades ago, between them is not as good as I have daily in the concept of so close.

Balaam bold proposal did not ultimately realized in the hierarchy of the military. In 1966, research institutions from the United States Department of defense initiated the establishment of the ARPA, let the large computer research center is located in the country between the ease of communication based on the purpose, once again launched a distributed network communication project, and ultimately led to the birth of 1969 ARPANET (later NSFNET network speed faster in 1990 to replace).

Along with the computer network connecting continues to mature, changes of communication media began to subversive. The geeks and grassroots spirit under the guidance of the Internet further toward the open road ahead. After the military gradually enter the civil, it gradually breaks the network closed before dominated by companies such as AT&T, to promote the free flow of data, finally ushered in a hitherto unknown distributed era of prosperity.

We discussed when block chain framework is mentioned, the whole history of human society, and the evolution of the universe, will follow the divergence and convergence, distribution and consensus alternate law. The core factors we can simply understand with the first law of thermodynamics, namely energy conservation.

Because of this character, when supporting divergent energy shortage, the material will gradually converge. On the contrary, the convergence of the time, energy and elsewhere diffusion impulse, also led to a new round of divergence. In human history, the rise and fall of the same way, Chinese writer Luo Guanzhong once in “Three Kingdoms” wrote: “the world trend, long, long time.”

If the human history fenfenhehe is too big, not convenient for us to understand the details and the nature of things, so we will focus on the change of modern communication media is the internet. Harvard University scholar Wu Xiuming in his book “switch”, combing the full American Communication Industry Development — from a telephone, broadcast to movie and TV until recently during the Internet, have experienced numerous points alternately.

In the industry as an example, in 1876, startups Baer through patent litigation, and by the time the telegraph industry of Western Union Company in a hostile takeover of the morass of opportunity, in one fell swoop from the hands grabbed the phone market, breaking the monopoly of Western companies, achieved the distribution of phone market “”.

In 1907, Morgan took control of the Bell Co, driven by the original management. With the power of capital, Bell Co have the Western Conference most of the company’s stock, has a nationwide telephone network, completed the transition from new power to the monopoly giants (consensus). At the same time, AT&T from a subsidiary of Bell Co into its holdings of the parent company, the monopoly period lasted until 1984.

Next, in the government of the Federal Communications Commission, the National Security Bureau under the intervention of AT&T experienced a first spin off, then again with the process. In the first period of monopoly Bell Co, we mentioned in the above ARPANET was born.

The application of TCP/IP network protocol inflection point-

Between a plurality of devices interconnected network but separate, a loose arrangement of this is the internet. Each device in the Internet (host), use a set of “agreement” and other communications equipment to the network, the protocol on the Internet operation mode plays a role of supporting the foundation of.

The communication protocol of the original ARPANET is completed by the Research Institute of colleges and universities funded by birth. A group of young collaborators, in the free discussion, to the authority of some wild and intractable atmosphere, wrote the first implementation of the ARPANET protocols, namely the network control protocol (NCP). This also makes the Internet in the subsequent development of the Department of defense gradually get rid of the solemn gene, created its unique cultural connotation of programmers and hackers.

But strictly speaking, ARPANET was not the real internet. Although the ARPANET achieved the initial communication smoothly, but from the realization of free communication between multiple devices without hindrance is still a big gap. In order to realize the communication between a wider range of equipment to contact, in the mid 1970s, the Internet beyond the original ARPANET boundary will expand to connect radio and satellite field.

To ensure that the connection between the different lines smooth, we need a new standard agreement. The continuation of the ARPANET NCP open to the atmosphere, TCP released in 1974. The birth of the TCP protocol allows different networks, using different technologies like machines can seamlessly communicate like on the same network. The true meaning of the Internet has grown up from the beginning of time.

 Do not tamper with, encryption and risk | inflection point has to be dense, the rise of the agreement

By 1978, after discussion, TCP protocol and IP protocol from the writing group in a separate TCP deal with the communication between computers, Internet IP. Since the Internet Protocol TCP/IP finally completed amendments, the next work only to make sure the connection between networks can be applied to the real world.

The careful reader is aware, we talk about the Internet in the rapid development of the benefits of early to break AT&T, containment in above. As was the largest telephone company, AT&T communication system and long-distance telephone network based on the constructed covering almost the entire United States, if someone wants to convey information in remote system must use the AT&T company.

He initially spent years hoping to persuade to accept their “AT&T packet network” concept, but did not succeed, the core reason is that there is a fundamental conflict between the stick and the telephone company for many years, centralized service operation mode.

But with the rapid development of the Internet, after aware of the enormous potential it contains, including AT&T, the American telephone and telegraph industry subsequently launched a relative and TCP/IP across the X.25 protocol, used to scramble the dominant power for Internet core. But because still hasn’t been able to change the preference distribution, just ignore rely on consensus, so quickly defeated in the competition.

After the standard war, the Internet is at a faster pace, and soon ushered in a big jump from the late 1980s to the early 1990s. After years of development, and ultimately to the Internet coerced trend, has had a huge impact on the whole industry, telephone and telegraph. We can recall the early 2000 launch of the Skype (Internet phone service), or the moment you call occupied by instant communication tools which used to operators of telephone communication time, can detect the huge change of time.

Nowadays, the Internet has been accompanied by the popularity of mobile smart devices, fast speed increase and other factors, completely penetrated into all aspects of our lives. Radio, film and other information industry it mentioned ahead of us, retail, finance, tourism and other service industries, manufacturing sectors and many products, have a significant impact.

But as we talk about the telephone example, starting from the edge of the Internet, after years of development, some excellent enterprises once again occupy the absolute majority of users share. It is not like the beginning we expect, will be the mankind into a distribution of society, but is concentrated in several giants for having heard it many times in our hands, and reached a climax in the past two years.

The first annual profit for Amazon in 15 years after the start of the explosive growth of income. In 2018 net profit of more than $10 billion, for the first twenty years and the market value, the highest in 2018 exceeded 1 trillion. Google is also in 2018 in profits, even the high market value. Correspondingly, the whole world with the Internet as the core development momentum weakened, according to the Internet queen Mary Meeker’s report, 2017 years of the new global intelligent mobile phone shipments year-on-year growth rate has dropped to 0 from 2%, probably the next rate will continue downward.

In addition, the year-on-year growth rate of Internet users reached 12% in 2016, also began to turn down in 2017, slowed to 7%. As the world’s largest mobile Internet Group China, its total subscribers in 2018 September increased by 34 million, while the 17 year is 64 million. Users online time, according to the forecast of net Chi Research Report, 2017 China per week in the first half of the Internet users 26.5 hours, unchanged from 2016, has entered a slow trend.

Locomotive every turn, there will always be people who will be able to move on, there are new people on the bus, but also there will be people to leave. The key problem is whether you still have the beginning of the heart, and still have the courage to travel. The distribution of each time, will be another significant progress in economic and social. This is the law of nature in human beings cannot capture the pursuit, accumulate some weak force. And before long, it will not be back on the road again, heading toward disorder.

We are now in this era is in the inflection point, some of them have been vague from the chaos observed in the next round of opportunities, but also due to be unable to touch, so often feel confused. However humans is in the transformation and evolution of again and again, continue to cast a new monument in civilization process.

Let us recall that the distribution of history is from the consensus reached the summit started brewing. According to this speculation, the next story will repeat as history? Self revolution is very difficult, but often will not be easy to subvert. If we open the distribution of wave again, there will be new participants up to the top of the mountain station in the next time? Still existing giants through iteration and transformation to survive?

In order to answer these questions, we need to look up a analysis of Internet technology details. We know the reason why the Internet can be extended to today the size of the kernel is the TCP/IP protocol, then what is the specific role played by it? We use real life examples, such as when we are delivering goods, the goods are packed into a box or container before transport, and all kinds of information in the network world, is similar to the way through the circulation of goods for transport.

The IP protocol provides the basic unit and the format of data transmission, like the transport of goods specified in the packing box when the size of the packaged goods and packaging procedures. In addition, IP also defines the data packet to submit and routing, such as provisions of the transport of goods and transport routes.

Although the IP protocol has made clear the main content of data transmission, but transmission definition in the IP protocol is one-way, that is to say out the goods you have received is we don’t know, it’s like two dollars a flat. The important message we want to send a registered letter to do? The TCP protocol is to help us to send this letter by registered letter “”.

The TCP protocol provides reliable object-oriented data streaming service rules and conventions. Simply, in TCP mode, the other sent a packet to you, you want to send a confirmation packet to each other. Through the validation rules, can improve the reliability of data transmission.

In the TCP/IP protocol provides the underlying infrastructure, the Internet is used to achieve the final outbreak. Most of what we see today to create a brilliant performance of the company are from the application layer. TCP/IP in fact by using a set of simple and practical design ideas, let each other barrier network is the most efficient for a simple consensus. Which model is the first to achieve the most basic flow, then the complex and personalized program for the website, App solutions.

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Do not tamper with, encryption and risk | property right and the value of Internet

The daily planet | Facebook is to develop a stable currency Ethernet; Fang Thailand SEC will upgrade the success of Constantinople; BCH such as encryption of assets

 The daily planet | Facebook is to develop a stable currency Ethernet; Fang Thailand SEC will upgrade the success of Constantinople; BCH such as encryption of assets

The headlines

New York Times: people familiar with the situation that Facebook is developing a stable currency and foreign currencies and the dollar anchor

Including Facebook, Telegram and Signal, the Internet Co plans to launch a new crypto currency in the next year, which means that users can transfer to a contact through the message system, like Venmo or PayPal that can achieve cross-border transfers. People familiar with the plans said, Facebook is considering the token and foreign currencies pegged to the dollar, as the token value of endorsement. (New York Times)

Thailand SEC:BCH, ETC and LTC have also been listed as the encryption of assets

Thailand securities and Exchange Commission issued a statement on its official website, bitcoin cash (BCH), Ethernet (ETC) and Fang classic Wright currency (LTC) is considered to be encrypted and can be used to encrypt the assets transaction. The file contains bitcoin (BTC), Fang (ETH), Ripple Ethernet (XRP) and Stellar (XLM). The statement also provides encryption assets to be listed to be legal tender.

Li Xiaojia: the Hong Kong Stock Exchange in Shanghai and Shenzhen Hong Kong trading will be assigned in the application block chain technology

In February 28th, President Li Xiaojia pointed out that the Hong Kong Stock Exchange in the interpretation of the HKEx “2019-2021” strategic planning, in the use of new technology, the Hong Kong Stock Exchange will be the pilot step by step to explore new technology applications include block chain, including cloud computing, for example, HKEx will be in Shanghai and Hong Kong through the transaction after the distribution application block chain technology.

Digital currency

Ethernet Square & St Petersburg upgrade success of Constantinople, who have been cut to two block ETH

Etherscan.io data show that Ethernet square block height has reached 7280000, and St Petersburg has started the upgrade of constantinople. The block was broadcast by MiningPoolHub_1, contains a total of 118 transactions, block reward has fallen to two ETH. At present, the etheric Fang no significant fluctuations in prices.

Ripple: on-line Coinbase did not provide any funds to the

Ripple XRP market leader Miguel Vias publicly clarified that Ripple did not provide any funds to Coinbase. Coinbase Pro this Tuesday on the line XRP, there are allegations that Ripple is “bribery” can be listed on Coinbase. (FXstreet)

Security team: as the current, the loss of the accident caused by the blockchain exceeded $3 billion 800 million

According to the data provided by the security team to slow the fog, in 2018 there were 138 chain security incidents, compared with 15 in 2017 increased 820%. In 2019 the first month of the blockchain safety accident has more than a year in 2018. As of press time, according to the statistics of losses disclosed by the numerical and converted into dollars, all kinds of attacks caused a total of about 3 billion 800 million loss.

Block chain industry

Japanese police department: 2018 suspected of illegal proceeds of virtual currency transactions increased by about 9 times

According to statistics, the National Police Agency of Japan, Japan 2018 virtual currency traders to declare the transaction, as 7096 suspected of money laundering illegal income. Compared to April 2017 (reporting obligations of start time) 669 to December increased by about nine times. (Reuters Japan)

Chinese green building “country with deep wisdom, creating a new secondary arbitration dispute settlement platform using the block chain technology

Shenzhen International Arbitration Institute and Chinese Ping An insurance (Group) Limited by Share Ltd signed a strategic cooperation agreement the construction of wisdom “. The two sides will combine their resources, the use of safe China in artificial intelligence, block chain, cloud computing and other aspects of technology, construct the internationalization, intelligent and digital dispute settlement platform. (Chinese securities network)

JP Morgan is a test for the AZTEC to solve the zero knowledge privacy scheme

JP Morgan is testing a AZTEC zero knowledge privacy solutions. The agreement by the London Business Development Company AZTEC, to block chain data encryption at a lower cost and more efficient way. (CoinDesk)

Micro focus bank cooperation of Macao science and technology development fund, to block chain technology as the main fulcrum to strengthen the ability of innovation

In February 27th, Macao science and Technology Development Fund for the establishment of the Shenzhen Qianhai micro focus bank Limited by Share Ltd and the Macao SAR government signed a cooperation agreement. (Daily News)

China Mobile Yunnan company, using the 5G block chain digital technology to promote economic construction

As of the 2 month 27 days to 2019 years, the China Mobile Yunnan company has opened 24 5G base station test in Kunming, Lijiang, Dali, Yuxi and other 14 city. In the pilot station at the same time, China Mobile Yunnan company uniform pace, proposed by 5G, the big data block chain, a new generation of information and communication technology to boost the digital economy, build smart city package engineering. (Yunnan News)

Square Q4 earnings announcement, 2018 years sold a total value of about $166 million BTC

Mobile payment company Square has announced the 2018 fiscal year fourth quarter and full year earnings. The letter to shareholders in Square data show that in 2018 sold a total value of about $166 million BTC, of which the total BTC value of fourth quarter sales was approximately $52 million. (Ethereum World News)

Moscow City Council Bill, the plan will be used for the electronic voting system the parliamentary election block chain technology

In February 26th, Moscow City Council submitted a bill, the bill will be used in the electronic voting system of parliamentary elections blockchain technology. Senator Dmitry Vyatkin said that the bill should be earlier than the date by voting. (Russian TASS)

PricewaterhouseCoopers launched Smart Credential platform, the digital certificate issued to employees using the block chain technology

PWC announced the launch of its Smart Credential platform, the platform using the block chain technology issued a digital version of the certificate to the staff, and can be stored in a virtual wallet. PWC hopes that this platform can significantly reduce the cost of screening employers, and help them out of paper documents. (Information Age)

Global policy

Yunnan provincial development and Reform Commission, will focus on the application block chain technology as a breakthrough to promote digital industrialization

In February 27th, the Yunnan provincial development and Reform Commission held a news conference. Yunnan will be the “three hub”, namely digital resources and digital industry, industry oriented digital and digital hub of South Asia radiation center. The digital industry, will focus on the application of block chain technology as a breakthrough, to build a Yunnan highland block chain technology application. (Kunming daily)

German Chancellor Merkel: German scientific research system will be especially on the block chain development proposals

2 March 27, the German research and innovation expert committee submitted a new annual report to the German government, put forward to strengthen the research and innovation of financial support, to promote the development of the block chain and artificial intelligence technology. German Chancellor Angela Merkel said Germany research system will be particularly research on block chain development proposals. (xinhuanet.com)

The United States of California parliamentary majority leader proposed new rules to traffic encryption, for violations of the highest fines of $50 thousand

The California state parliament majority leader Ian Calderon proposed 1489 acts of Parliament, may the virtual currency business in violation of the provisions of the behavior of a civil penalty of $10 thousand per day. To engage in such activities without a license in the case of each violation of a regulation is liable to a fine of $50 thousand. (Dailyhodl)

The Standard Bank of South Africa this year plans to launch the blockchain platform for half a year, the foreign exchange payment and settlement

The Standard Bank of South Africa (Standard Bank) will launch a distributed platform based on cloud computing books a private license for foreign exchange payment and settlement. The bank said the system of Hyperledger Fabric technology in the first half of this year on the line. (Banking Tech)

Liu Xiaolei: the financial supervision department has BAT and some companies, the data collected using the block chain technology

In the “Guanghua NPC and CPPCC economic situation and policy analysis”, professor and director of Guanghua School of Management financial department of Peking University Liu Xiaolei said that the financial regulatory authorities have BAT other companies, the collection of the data, using a large data block chain technology. (the network)

The anti money laundering organization FATF urged the 35 member countries like commercial bank like regulation encryption currency exchange

International organization of anti money laundering of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) to discuss the regulatory standard encryption currency exchange at the meeting on February 22nd. FATF 35 urged members of the financial authorities like commercial bank supervision as encryption currency exchange. (Bitcoin.com)

Investment and financing

Informed sources: Singapore Government Investment Company to participate in Coinbase last year 3 million E round of financing

According to informed sources, the Government Investment Company of Singapore (GIC) encryption of Coinbase $300 million financing currency exchange investors for the 2018 u.s.. As previously reported, Coinbase announced the completion of $300 million E round of financing, valuation will exceed $8 billion. (Peng Bo)

Voyager to about $4 million acquisition of Ethos.io encrypted Wallet

This month launched Voyager encryption brokerage platform and the listing of approximately $4 million acquisition of startups Ethos.io encrypted wallet. (CoinDesk)

VALR trading platform for the $1 million 500 thousand seed round of financing, lead investor Bittrex

South Africa trading platform VALR won $1 million 500 thousand seed round of financing, the U.S. currency exchange investment led Bittrex encryption. Bittrex CEO Bill Shihara said, VALR will be supported on 50 kinds of encryption currency, and in March 1 is open to the public. (CoinDesk)

IFWallet will complete a new round of financing, BCH ecological fund collar vote

Billion paid wallet (IFWallet) will be completed a new round of financing, this financing by BCH eco fund collar vote, RockMiner, ViaBTC with the cast, the specific amount of financing did not disclose the investment valuation of tens of millions of yuan. It is reported that IFWallet is a “self-sustaining private key + cloud” dual core digital currency wallet. (IFWallet)

Figure, view

Silver CIRC chief risk officer: To explore reasonable business process optimization using the block chain technology, improve the regulatory framework of financial technology

The afternoon of February 28th, silver CIRC chief risk officer Xiao Yuanqi pointed out that the supply side structural reforms in improving the allocation efficiency, so as to improve the efficiency and ability to improve the allocation of resources by means of science and technology. To explore the use of new technologies such as block chain business process optimization. (Caixin)

Report: the Swiss financial technology market rose 62% in 2018 the number of distributed books company growth three times

In February 27th, a new study published in Luzern University of Applied Sciences, the Swiss financial technology market grew 62% in 2018. This growth depends on the financial technology of distributed books (DLT), an increase of three times the number of. In Switzerland the existing 356 financial technology companies, 122 engaged in books distributed technology. (Cointelegraph)

PWC released the industry’s “guidelines for encryption of bankruptcy”

Recently, PWC released Hongkong encryption industry guidance in financial difficulties or insolvent enterprises, the paper solves the complexity of emerging industry unique, especially in the valuation of assets and cross jurisdiction business.

Report: independent research and development of technology and architecture, the underlying block chain is paid more and more attention

In February 28th, Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) released the forty-third “China Internet development statistics report”. The report pointed out that the independent research and development of technology and architecture of the underlying block chain is paid more and more attention. (Tencent Technology)

Fund adviser Cambridge Associates advises institutional investors to invest 1% fund to cryptocurrencies industry

Recently, holding $389 billion in assets of pensions and endowment fund adviser Cambridge Associates on institutional investors give investment advice that can be no more than 1% of the total funds invested directly to BTC and ETH, ICO, STO mainstream encryption currency, for encryption / block chain company or indirectly. (Trustnodes)

Analysts: Global microgrid market size is expected to reach $30 billion by 2022

Amit Sharma power and data analysis company GlobalData analyst said: the blockchain micro grid has become a key theme of the rapid development of the energy sector. 2018 to 2022 years, the global microgrid market size is expected to grow at a compound annual rate of 15% (CAGR) to 2022 years of growth, the market value will reach $30 billion. (GlobalData)

Report: bit mainland to 150 billion valuation, in the 2018 China super Unicorn enterprise 12

Recently, prospective industry Research Institute released the “China Unicorn Enterprise Research Report 2018”. Associated with the block chain, only a bit, on the list. Bit continent with the new valuation of $15 billion, ranked 2018 China super Unicorn enterprises (more than the valuation of over $10 billion) twelfth.

Science | Fang analysis: Merkel tree, the etheric state of the world, trade and other

Editor’s note: This article from the etheric Fang (ID:ethfans), amateur Author: Zac, translation & proofreading: IAN LIU & Elisa, source: medium, authorized reprint by Odaily daily planet.

Hello! This article aims to introduce some concepts in the etheric Fang yellow book. Through this paper, we will learn some main parts of the etheric workshops and their role in the whole system, at the same time will also briefly discuss the principle of the Merkel tree in the etheric fang.

I hope you in front of the screen after reading can understand what is the Merkel tree, and its role in the etheric workshops; can understand the concept of “state of the world” and “account state”; to outline the structure and block trading in the mind.

(Disclaimer: this June 5, 2018 e94ebda version of the book based on Byzantine introduction)

Merkel tree

Before discussing the main data object Ethernet lane, I want to give you a brief introduction to Merkel tree is what attributes so that it can play a role.

The Yellow Book postulated by custom Merkel Patricia Natsuki to safeguard world and transactions. Appendix D describes the data structure.

Merkel Patricia Natsuki has many interesting properties, if you want a deeper understanding of its application in the etheric workshops, I recommend you to read this article.

In the Merkel tree, from the leaf node to save hash block data, hash by non leaf node saves its child nodes.

 Science | Fang analysis: Merkel tree, the etheric state of the world, trade and other

– Merkel tree diagram (including node and the relation between them) –

Merkel points to change any change tree data will cause the node of the hash. Since the hash saved every parent node in the value contained in the sub node depends on the data, so the data in the child node changes will cause changes of the parent node of the hash. And it is the impact of a chain reaction, the root node from the leaf node to. So the leaf node to change data changes will cause the root node hash stored. By the above structure, we can derive two important attributes:

  • In two Merkel tree to determine whether data are completely the same, we do not need to compare each leaf node, and only the root node stored hash comparison.

  • In particular to judge whether data is point to the tree, we can use the Merkel proof technology. The technique here does not do too much, just know that this is a simple and efficient method of data exists in Merkel tree.

The importance of the first attribute is that we can only use the root node of the hash value, will mark a moment the whole tree to data. This means that only through the hash value can block marked the root node (without storing all the data blocks in the chain), and maintenance of data can not be tampered with.

At this point we find the root node in the Merkel tree hash function, the following to introduce the main object in the etheric fang.

The state of the world

The state of the world is mapped to the address (account) account state. Although the state of the world is not stored in the block chain, but in the yellow book in the description of the state of the world from the tree to store the data (this tree is also known as the state of the database or the state tree). The state of the world can be regarded as the global state with the execution of the transaction and continuously updated. The etheric is like a square to the center of the computer, the state of the world is the computer hard disk.

All the account information of the etheric workshop are reflected in the state of the world, and is saved by the state of the world tree. If you want to know the balance of an account, or a smart contract the current state, requires specific state information by querying the state of the world tree to get the account. I will also briefly introduce how this information is stored in the following.

 Science | Fang analysis: Merkel tree, the etheric state of the world, trade and other

The world state tree and account storage

Account status

There are two types of accounts: account all external Ethernet Fang (Externally Owned Accounts referred to as EOA) and contract account. We used to each other to send money, Ethernet deployment of smart contracts account is automatically generated and deployed EOA account, intelligent contract account is the account contract. Every intelligent contract has the one and only the etheric Fang account.

The account reflects the state of all the information in an Ethernet square accounts. For example, it stores the current account balance information, Ethernet currency current account sent a number of transactions… Each account has the account status.

Here’s a look at what are included in the account status:


Then send out address number of transactions (if the current EOA account) or the account the contract to create operation (now regardless of what is the contract to create operation).


The amount of this account have Ethernet (Wei currency measurement).


The hash value of the tree root node account (described later is what account).


For contract account, this account is the hash code of EVM value. For the EOA account, the blank.

One can not ignore the details of account status is the object, all objects are variable (except codeHash). For example, when an account to other accounts to send Ethernet coins, in addition to nonce will increase, the account balance will be changed accordingly.

While codeHash is not made if the deployment of intelligent variability, there are loopholes in the contract, can not repair the update of this contract. The corresponding, only the deployment of a new contract (and there are loopholes in the version will always exist in the block chain). This is why the development and deployment of Truffle for the use of smart contracts is very necessary, and using Solidity programming to follow the best practice requirements.

The tree structure is preserved and the account account associated data. The only contract account only, while in EOA, storageRoot, codeHash is a string of empty hash empty string value. All intelligent contract data to the 32 byte map stored in the account in the tree. Here no longer account state tree how to maintain the contract data. If the reader on the internal implementation of interest, strongly recommended to read this article. StorageRoot in the state of regional account account is responsible for maintaining the root node hash value.

 Science | Fang analysis: Merkel tree, the etheric state of the world, trade and other

– account status and account storage tree


Transaction driven current state to the next state transition. There are three types of transactions in the etheric workshops:

  • The EOA value of the transaction (such as transmission between sender and receiver, change the size of the balance).

  • Send a message to call the deal (for example, by sending a message call to trigger the setter method to set the value of the contract).

  • For the deployment of the contract (creating contract account).

(from a technical point of view, both transactions are the same… They are all adjustable to change the account status of the transaction, the message is only a EOA account, a contract account. The transaction is divided into 3 is for the convenience of the reader’s understanding).

The transaction is made up of the following parts:


This account issued by the transaction number number (Note: the proof can be roughly understood as “this is the first account transactions”).


The execution of this transaction, the calculation for each unit of gas pay (Wei measurement).


The maximum number of gas can be used to perform this transaction at.


  • If this transaction for the transfer of money to receive Ethernet Ethernet, currency EOA address.

  • If this transaction for sending messages to the contract (for example, intelligent call of the contract), here is the contract.

  • If this transaction is used to create a contract here is null.


  • If this transaction is used to transmit Ethernet coins, here for the receiving account to the number of Wei measurement tokens.

  • If this transaction is used to send message to the contract calls here for the number of Wei payment to receive this message intelligent contract.

  • If this transaction is used to create a contract here for the contract is initialized to the number of Wei account for the measurement of the etheric coins.

V, R, s

Used in cryptography signature of the transaction value in the transaction, can be used to determine the sender.

Data (only for value transmission and send messages to the intelligent contract call)

The input data attached to send messages when calling (for example, suppose you want to execute the setter method of intelligent contract in the data area should identifier, including the setter method and the parameters you want to set the value).

Init (only for the contract to create)

The EVM code is used to initialize the contract.

Don’t think of all of a sudden the understanding of these concepts must digest… On the internal mechanism of the etheric Fang has a deeper understanding, really like this concept of init district data district.

I believe that you would expect, block all transactions are stored at the Merkel tree. The root node of the tree and hash value stored by the district! Here we have to analyse the etheric structure of square block.


The block is divided into 2 parts, namely area size and block.

Man is in the etheric region square block chain part. It has preserved the previous blocks (also called parent block) hash value, through a connecting region formed by a chain of cryptography endorsement.

Block this block contains records in a series of transactions, and (ommer) region’s TERT block list. If you want to further understand the tertiary block, I recommend reading this article.

 Science | Fang analysis: Merkel tree, the etheric state of the world, trade and other

Ethernet block diagram – Fang Abstract

The following is to introduce areas including what part.


Area before a block size hash value. Each block contains a hash sequence block value, the way back to the chain of block creation. This is the maintenance of the structure design of data will not be tampered with (any of the pre order hash block tampering will affect the value of all the blocks).


Uncle and part of block size hash value.


Because of this block and return to dig the etheric Fang account.


The hash value of the tree root node of the state of the world (to be executed in all transactions).


The value of the transaction hash tree root node. This tree contains all the trading block.


When the transaction is executed, the etheric workshop will generate the corresponding results of transaction receipt. Here is the root node of the hash tree transaction receipt.


Bloom filter is used to judge whether a block has a transaction log (the answer if interested in this aspect, can refer to Stack Overflow). This avoids storing log information in blocks (save space).


This blocks the difficulty value. This is a measure of the value of the current block difficulty (details and calculation of this concept does not introduce here).


The total number of pre order block. This marks the blockchain height (i.e. how many blocks block chain). The block number is 0.


Every transaction need to consume gas. The total gas gas limit marked all the block trading records can be used. This is the limit of a number of block trading means.


The total gas of each block in the exchange of actual consumption.


Unix time stamp blocks create time. Remember that due to the center of the square the etheric network, we cannot trust this value, especially the written contract, intelligence involves the time related business logic can not rely on this value.


A variable length byte array can enter anything. When the miners create block, can add anything in this area.


A block is used to verify whether the real value of the record to the hash chain (if you want to truly understand this concept, this article recommend reading Ethash proof-of-work function).


Like the mixHash, is used to verify the real record to block the value chain.

Oh… Is really that I suggest you mouth acid… Don’t worry, slowly absorbed! But I want to emphasize again, read this article should not be to remember each noun and its function as the target (in Google on these can be found to). My intention is to write in a simple way (at least than the Yellow Book Simple) introduction Ethernet square object aspects, to help the novice to understand the professional terms on behalf of what. This article as a “stupid methodology Ethernet square object”!

Hundsun: the main push 2 chain chain alliance, but the transaction has less than 30 pen | pursuit of listed companies

Editor’s note: This article from the chain catcher (ID:iqklbs), author: Hu Tao, editor of Gong Quanyu, the daily planet Odaily authorized reprint.

 Hundsun: the main push 2 alliance chain, but the chain transaction has no 30 pen | pursuit of listed companies

Block chain technology after years of development, has become an important trend in the community are actively concerned with practice, a large number of block chain technology project based on Ethernet, especially the stampede in, square ripple primary block chain project, made a great contribution to the industry chain block.

At the same time, with the listed company as the representative of the traditional enterprises have invested power exploration block chain. The chain that most listed companies have a clear application and research and development, and to a certain extent, shows the policy on the block chain technology attitude. Therefore, an important perspective of application of block chain of listed companies also observed industry trends, although many of them intended to hype the stock speculation, but there are also many incumbents.

To this end, the chain (ID:iqklbs) today launched a series of special reports in pursuit of listed companies, these companies seek fresh experience, observe the development path and status in the social reality of the block chain from the perspective of listed companies.

This topic first company famous for “blockchain” stocks Hundsun, the company is the industry’s leading financial IT suppliers in almost all segments of the industry to the financial output technology solutions, in recent years also invest more resources into the research and practice of the blockchain technology, has run two and a plurality of chain alliance practice case.

01 Hundsun introduction

Hang Seng Electronics was founded in 1995, is one of the financial software and network services provider China largest business scope, covering many areas of securities, futures, funds, trust, insurance, banking, private equity and other securities trading system, the core fund investment management system and other products have a market share of more than 70%, a leading position in the industry significantly.

According to the February 27th closing price, Hundsun market capitalization was 53 billion 100 million, compared with the beginning of 14 nearly doubled to 4 times. According to the results, the Hang Seng electronic achieved operating income of 1 billion 361 million yuan for 18 years 1-6 months, an increase of 25.98%, attributable to shareholders of listed companies net profit of 300 million yuan, an increase of 31.37%, the main data exceeded market expectations.

 Hundsun: the main push 2 chain chain alliance, but the transaction has less than 30 pen | pursuit of listed companies

Hundsun 18 years 1-6 months of financial data

Hundsun on IT system performance in recent years the demand for more and better and stronger financial markets are closely linked. In recent years, the state of financial supervision and the increasingly stringent requirements, at the same time, the influx of Internet Co in the intensified competition in domestic financial markets at the same time, but also to expand the financial market capacity greatly, which gave birth to the financial IT service and software more demand.

Hundsun always pay attention to the emerging technology layout for many years continuously grasp the Internet, big data, cloud computing and other business expansion opportunities, R & D investment accounted for the proportion of revenues is extremely high, and reached 48% in 17 years, and R & D personnel accounted for about 80% in nearly 8000 employees.

17-18 years, Hundsun focuses on the application of artificial intelligence technology in the financial aspects of the IT system, and the introduction of intelligent question answering service platform, intelligent asset allocation engine, intelligent service analysis, intelligent KYC and many other artificial intelligence products, to further consolidate the core competitiveness of service industry.

At the same time, there are quite brisk Hundsun shareholders lineup, the controlling shareholder of the ant payment service, the shareholding ratio of top shareholders as well as the Hongkong Central Clearing Company, Central Huijin asset management limited liability company, the national social security fund.

The possibility of 02 Hundsun combined with block chain business

Block chain industry is one of the fastest growing industries in recent years around the world, with distributed collaboration, information can not be tampered with and other advantages, and the financial industry to the system security, traceability, convenience and other needs with the theory, at the same time block chain technology can reduce the costs of coordination of financial institutions, reducing the risk of data leakage and tampered with, so the industry generally believe that the financial sector is one of the best application block chain technology.

Chinese ICT Institute for 18 years issued “financial report” blockchain wrote, the blockchain certificate issued and application in circulation in the financial assets based on the block chain have a positive impact on potential currency circulation, financial instruments, financial markets, financial intermediaries and financial system and regulation mechanism of system elements

But not any financial segments are applicable to block chain technology, especially in the block chain technology is not mature now. Hundsun as financial IT technology service providers, some customers to buy IT system mainly for internal use, there is almost no multi agency cooperation and trust risk, block chain technology demand is low; some customers to buy IT system for transactions in financial assets, there are high requirements for transaction speed, block chain technology due to block the production of very slow to achieve the requirements of traditional financial institutions, and financial assets in the issuer of assets is not on the chain, bearing assets system is difficult to block technology and open chain.

At the same time, digital currency as an emerging asset class, investors in the digital currency transaction demand with more and more high frequencies, the trading system performance, safety and stability of high demands. Hang Seng electronic service providers as the traditional IT system in the financial field, trade technical reserves and system development experience deep, further development of digital currency trading system has convenient conditions richly endowed by nature.

But the problem is that the legal status of digital currency has not yet been approved by the state, the Hang Seng electronic listed companies as a digital currency trading system has certain development policy risk.

Hundsun executives have repeatedly talked about the blockchain view. Hang Seng E-executive president fan Wu said the large data size, and block chain combination, use sharing books and encryption technology, can ensure the privacy and security; in the OTC options business, can put beyond the control of the data on the block chain, the use of intelligent automatic processing of contract enforcement, so as to reduce credit risk, improve trading efficiency. Hundsun CEO Guan Xiaolan also said that the chain block is one of the seven financial weapons of the development of science and technology;

Hundsun chief architect Zhang Leyan has participated in many activities, block chain related and said: “we understand the blockchain based, we think the starting point in the financial industry chain block technology is that low frequency large transactions or artificial operation risks, and the alliance chain deployment with respect to public speaking chain, more easily to solve the blockchain performance issues, regulatory issues, technology evolution rhythm. “

In the 17 annual report pointed out that Hundsun, block chain technology is considered in the value storage, transaction process and payment application space with the corresponding field, but the technology in the world, is still in the initial stage, the mature use of technology, especially the application of the floor, looking for suitable financial scene in the specific financial products, currently still need time.

Overall, has the theoretical possibility of application of Hundsun main business block in the chain, but at present there exist many obstacles. Hundsun executives generally aware of the value chain block technology applied in the financial sector, and the potential difficulties.

Block chain layout 03 Hundsun

Since 15 years, Hundsun began to study the blockchain, then moves frequently. 16 years, Hundsun established room block chain expert on Hang Seng Institute, join the super books Hyperledger, and launched a joint financial block chain alliance; 17 years, Hundsun completed private equity system prototype system based on block chain, and released the financial chain alliance and launched the operation of FTCU HSL van Tailian, main the two project is the carrier of Hundsun block chain strategy.

According to public statements Hundsun, financial chain alliance is a HSL for compliance with financial institutions to quickly build a block chain system to the center of the PaaS platform, the main development scenarios in the trade finance, supply chain and other business areas. In June 18, the Hang Seng electronics joint Tianjin financial assets exchange released a smart income block chain based share contract product, the product uses HSL to open up the upstream and downstream enterprises, can share the benefits for investors; in December 18, China Banking Association led Chinese trade finance interbank trading platform officially launched the blockchain, HSL platform has been on the line of credit, forfaiting, and docking of the future of the new trade finance business.

FTCU van Tailian main docking Internet related court, the notary office and other public institutions, has access to support contract chain, private equity chain business scenarios. In February 22nd this year, Hundsun signed a cooperation agreement with the Hainan Provincial Intellectual Property Office, integrated service platform, jointly build intellectual property rights registration and matching electronic auction trading system, which will introduce the block chain technology for intellectual property rights certificates of deposit and transfer.

The Hang Seng blockchain browser, the website currently has only 1 online nodes, producing 24 blocks, and most blocks only 1 transactions, the chain of transactions less than 30 of the total sum.

 Hundsun: the main push 2 chain chain alliance, but the transaction has less than 30 pen | pursuit of listed companies

The Hang Seng blockchain website data.

To put a lot of resources of independent research and development, the company has invested Hundsun number and block chain related.

In April 2017, the Hang Seng electronics chain project to block SYMBIONT invested $4 million and accounted for 4.65% of shares. “We chose Symbiont, because of its superior, mature, highly differentiated distributed books (DLT stack) stack. The data layer is protected by security and privacy market leading solutions, the intelligent contract has been shown to have the ability to deal with complex business logic of automation. “Hang Seng electronics CEO Guan Xiaolan said at the time.

According to the chain of catcher, SYMBIONT was founded in 2015, its location is the blockchain intelligent securities issuance and trading platform based on enterprise and has launched the block chain and intelligent contract platform Assembly, has carried out the test of the R3 joint bank syndicated loans, Allianz Insurance Business hit off system.

In January 19, SYMBIONT Nasdaq Ventures (NASDAQ’s), Galaxy Digital, Citi (Citigroup) institutions such as the $20 million B round of financing, which means that many of the top SYMBIONT won the favor of financial institutions, including Nasdaq Ventures director Gary Offner also said that the future will be the Symbiont block chain and intelligent enterprise contract platform integrated into the financial framework in nasdaq.

In addition to SYMBIONT, many companies Hundsun shareholding also have the layout in the block chain direction, respectively, holding approximately 8% Blue Software and holding about 30% of the melting technology. Kelan software is an IT solution provider, 17-18 years with the Guiyang agricultural firm jointly launched the construction of the blockchain digital rights platform; financial technology is also an IT solutions provider, in September 18 launched the blockchain brand financial chain, and the application of the technology of red tea, block chain block chain smart Bracelet etc., and joint Zhejiang University of Finance and build the blockchain science and technology research institute.

04 summary

Hundsun as block chain stocks famous, in the blockchain field has done many layout, the main substantive action is initiated the establishment of the two financial chain alliance, and has been used in the supply chain, notes and other fields.

Obviously, the blockchain progress Hundsun almost and the existing main business does not exist, the business association the highest degree of digital currency trading system did not touch, mostly new business or business edge. At the same time, based on the current application of HSL and FTCU of the product chain alliance of only a few months, little social repercussions.

In addition, the Alibaba, Tencent and other Internet Co have launched applications like league chain, and the case should be diversified, Hundsun launched the union chain with respect to differences in localization are no clear.

This phenomenon shows that Hundsun cautious attitude to the blockchain, on the other hand also shows Hundsun for trying to block chain landing scene is still in the early stages of exploration, there is a higher uncertainty.

But the block chain business Hundsun still has a certain competitive advantage, mainly concentrated in the vast B client resources and IT system development experience, these advantages will help future Hundsun reduce customer cost and obtain the trust of users.

Overall, the blockchain action Hundsun in recent months has increased significantly, with further increase of the blockchain investment, Hundsun future might be able to get a space for one person in the blockchain financial field.

Note: this does not constitute any investment advice.

The new SEC guidance: the future of ICO is only STO

In the United States law compliance ICO, its essence is the specific regulations of the STO. In this regard, the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) recently in “the latest release of” guidance on ICO 5 notice “, not only this interpretation more user-friendly, also further promote the normalization of supervision industry.

After analyzing the standard consensus, SEC again, the content is not new, SEC listed in a separate section and at the same time again on social networking sites, the degree of attention to the content.

This article through the objective standard of translation and consensus on the content analysis of two aspects, to analyze the two aspects of investors and market practitioners.

At the same time, we can also see that, although the SEC in the web and social media once again stressed these guiding opinions, but there is no regulation on the new regulations, if the enterprises choose the compliance of the ST issue, the total node before the process and regulations and methods and standards still exempt consensus agreement.

But for those who have been released Utility Token, but the essence is the securities issued the scrip project, how to compliance? This paper will also prompt.

 The new SEC guidance: the future of ICO is only STO

 The new SEC guidance: the future of ICO is only STO

 The new SEC guidance: the future of ICO is only STO

 The new SEC guidance: the future of ICO is only STO

 The new SEC guidance: the future of ICO is only STO

 The new SEC guidance: the future of ICO is only STO

 The new SEC guidance: the future of ICO is only STO

 The new SEC guidance: the future of ICO is only STO