Distributed risk state machine arpanet-
Many of our friends to read now, probably for the blockchain or vague impression. From the beginning we talked about cooperation, game theory, and on this basis, expounds some viewpoints for our future economic and organizational changes. However, details about the block chain technology, we are only in the distribution and consensus in the chapter abstracts five one of the most essential points.
Let’s take a look at, they are on behalf of the group reached a decision (consensus) end can not be tampered with, open source and open, and individual interests (distribution) encryption, motivation and coordination is expected to end, in addition to the above four technologies for the development of P2P transmission network.
The core of these two can not be tampered with and encryption, but also because of their presence, so get some out of the ordinary block chain. Or, if we will construct the block chain system is regarded as an extremely delicate building, then let the building to achieve the essence of the immortal status in the history of human civilization, from the non tampering and encryption.
We often hear the blockchain will subvert the Internet such remarks, but in fact, in addition to these two technologies, the other three already exists in the Internet structure. Even the two itself and the original is not what Nakamoto, they are more or less in the age of the Internet has had a lot of related application. In addition, we should also understand that almost all of the block chain project, actually is to build upon our existing internet.
As we have mentioned in this article, the block chain is to convert the original database into square grid storage, and to the structure of the one-way chain (DAG that is connected to the directed acyclic graph arrangement and the different, also is being applied to solve similar problems and hope to use block chain of the scene but, whether it belongs to a block chain remains controversial).
After forty years of development, has gathered a lot of valuable data. Block chain technology is original, rearrange the distribution mechanism through the data storage and production, the further release of kinetic energy of these data, and solve the existing network system, data security, authenticity, liquidity, asset pricing and data ownership, individual data privacy issues. Of course, if properly designed, it will also further promote all physical digital process.
Digital machine more powerful, is devouring between groups and individuals had clear boundary, originally belonging to the interests of the individual is the giant machine constantly eroded. Born in the community in the block chain, from the outset, contains more value for individual attention, from this perspective, the core value that is for our further towards digital world to create a more accurate risk allocation of state machine, in order to better balance the interests of the two, at the same time reduce the risk coefficient the whole system.
Block chain technology to Nakamoto as the representative of the early pioneers in the birth of the Internet began shortly after the above exploration, and finally found the weapons in Cryptography (state machine). No theory of tampering and encryption technology is ultimately derived from cryptography. Because there is a great deal of contact between the block chain and the Internet, and to some extent it is a continuation and upgrade of the Internet, so before talking about the block chain technology, let us complete understanding about the development process of the internet.
The earliest Internet from the United States Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). In 1969, two units were delivered to the information processor of University of California at Los Angeles and the Graduate School of the Stanford University, the first attempt to use more than 350 miles of rental telephone line communication. This is by the agency led the development of the ARPANET (APRANET) of the first transmission, ARPANET is the rudiment of today we the widespread use of the internet.
The reason for the birth of the Internet, from the five century, in 60s the Soviet Union during the cold war, the U.S. military construction anti nuclear strike communication system. Writing at the University of Cambridge’s Jonny Ryan Internet history books “” centrifugal force, described the Rand Co to avoid reform one-time destruction and the traditional central network may encounter attack.
He wrote in 1962 in “on distributed communications network” in the memorandum, he described this with no central point, and the working principle of distributed network redundancy can be used for the. With this model, even if the enemy destroyed a large range of communication facilities, the U.S. can still reliably command nuclear forces with the remaining nodes.
This is a very radical idea at the time, if Balaam mentioned the theory to work, is constructed in the hundreds of years of strong centralized paradigm of industrial system, to construct a completely different from the previous digital ecology. In order to achieve the above ideas, to both unrelated subjects, combined with computer and communication.
In the us today seems very unbelievable, we engaged in financial work of science and technology and many friends all know this English abbreviation TMT (Technology, Media, Telecom, is referred to as science and technology, media and communications industry), but in a few decades ago, between them is not as good as I have daily in the concept of so close.
Balaam bold proposal did not ultimately realized in the hierarchy of the military. In 1966, research institutions from the United States Department of defense initiated the establishment of the ARPA, let the large computer research center is located in the country between the ease of communication based on the purpose, once again launched a distributed network communication project, and ultimately led to the birth of 1969 ARPANET (later NSFNET network speed faster in 1990 to replace).
Along with the computer network connecting continues to mature, changes of communication media began to subversive. The geeks and grassroots spirit under the guidance of the Internet further toward the open road ahead. After the military gradually enter the civil, it gradually breaks the network closed before dominated by companies such as AT&T, to promote the free flow of data, finally ushered in a hitherto unknown distributed era of prosperity.
We discussed when block chain framework is mentioned, the whole history of human society, and the evolution of the universe, will follow the divergence and convergence, distribution and consensus alternate law. The core factors we can simply understand with the first law of thermodynamics, namely energy conservation.
Because of this character, when supporting divergent energy shortage, the material will gradually converge. On the contrary, the convergence of the time, energy and elsewhere diffusion impulse, also led to a new round of divergence. In human history, the rise and fall of the same way, Chinese writer Luo Guanzhong once in “Three Kingdoms” wrote: “the world trend, long, long time.”
If the human history fenfenhehe is too big, not convenient for us to understand the details and the nature of things, so we will focus on the change of modern communication media is the internet. Harvard University scholar Wu Xiuming in his book “switch”, combing the full American Communication Industry Development — from a telephone, broadcast to movie and TV until recently during the Internet, have experienced numerous points alternately.
In the industry as an example, in 1876, startups Baer through patent litigation, and by the time the telegraph industry of Western Union Company in a hostile takeover of the morass of opportunity, in one fell swoop from the hands grabbed the phone market, breaking the monopoly of Western companies, achieved the distribution of phone market “”.
In 1907, Morgan took control of the Bell Co, driven by the original management. With the power of capital, Bell Co have the Western Conference most of the company’s stock, has a nationwide telephone network, completed the transition from new power to the monopoly giants (consensus). At the same time, AT&T from a subsidiary of Bell Co into its holdings of the parent company, the monopoly period lasted until 1984.
Next, in the government of the Federal Communications Commission, the National Security Bureau under the intervention of AT&T experienced a first spin off, then again with the process. In the first period of monopoly Bell Co, we mentioned in the above ARPANET was born.
The application of TCP/IP network protocol inflection point-
Between a plurality of devices interconnected network but separate, a loose arrangement of this is the internet. Each device in the Internet (host), use a set of “agreement” and other communications equipment to the network, the protocol on the Internet operation mode plays a role of supporting the foundation of.
The communication protocol of the original ARPANET is completed by the Research Institute of colleges and universities funded by birth. A group of young collaborators, in the free discussion, to the authority of some wild and intractable atmosphere, wrote the first implementation of the ARPANET protocols, namely the network control protocol (NCP). This also makes the Internet in the subsequent development of the Department of defense gradually get rid of the solemn gene, created its unique cultural connotation of programmers and hackers.
But strictly speaking, ARPANET was not the real internet. Although the ARPANET achieved the initial communication smoothly, but from the realization of free communication between multiple devices without hindrance is still a big gap. In order to realize the communication between a wider range of equipment to contact, in the mid 1970s, the Internet beyond the original ARPANET boundary will expand to connect radio and satellite field.
To ensure that the connection between the different lines smooth, we need a new standard agreement. The continuation of the ARPANET NCP open to the atmosphere, TCP released in 1974. The birth of the TCP protocol allows different networks, using different technologies like machines can seamlessly communicate like on the same network. The true meaning of the Internet has grown up from the beginning of time.
By 1978, after discussion, TCP protocol and IP protocol from the writing group in a separate TCP deal with the communication between computers, Internet IP. Since the Internet Protocol TCP/IP finally completed amendments, the next work only to make sure the connection between networks can be applied to the real world.
The careful reader is aware, we talk about the Internet in the rapid development of the benefits of early to break AT&T, containment in above. As was the largest telephone company, AT&T communication system and long-distance telephone network based on the constructed covering almost the entire United States, if someone wants to convey information in remote system must use the AT&T company.
He initially spent years hoping to persuade to accept their “AT&T packet network” concept, but did not succeed, the core reason is that there is a fundamental conflict between the stick and the telephone company for many years, centralized service operation mode.
But with the rapid development of the Internet, after aware of the enormous potential it contains, including AT&T, the American telephone and telegraph industry subsequently launched a relative and TCP/IP across the X.25 protocol, used to scramble the dominant power for Internet core. But because still hasn’t been able to change the preference distribution, just ignore rely on consensus, so quickly defeated in the competition.
After the standard war, the Internet is at a faster pace, and soon ushered in a big jump from the late 1980s to the early 1990s. After years of development, and ultimately to the Internet coerced trend, has had a huge impact on the whole industry, telephone and telegraph. We can recall the early 2000 launch of the Skype (Internet phone service), or the moment you call occupied by instant communication tools which used to operators of telephone communication time, can detect the huge change of time.
Nowadays, the Internet has been accompanied by the popularity of mobile smart devices, fast speed increase and other factors, completely penetrated into all aspects of our lives. Radio, film and other information industry it mentioned ahead of us, retail, finance, tourism and other service industries, manufacturing sectors and many products, have a significant impact.
But as we talk about the telephone example, starting from the edge of the Internet, after years of development, some excellent enterprises once again occupy the absolute majority of users share. It is not like the beginning we expect, will be the mankind into a distribution of society, but is concentrated in several giants for having heard it many times in our hands, and reached a climax in the past two years.
The first annual profit for Amazon in 15 years after the start of the explosive growth of income. In 2018 net profit of more than $10 billion, for the first twenty years and the market value, the highest in 2018 exceeded 1 trillion. Google is also in 2018 in profits, even the high market value. Correspondingly, the whole world with the Internet as the core development momentum weakened, according to the Internet queen Mary Meeker’s report, 2017 years of the new global intelligent mobile phone shipments year-on-year growth rate has dropped to 0 from 2%, probably the next rate will continue downward.
In addition, the year-on-year growth rate of Internet users reached 12% in 2016, also began to turn down in 2017, slowed to 7%. As the world’s largest mobile Internet Group China, its total subscribers in 2018 September increased by 34 million, while the 17 year is 64 million. Users online time, according to the forecast of net Chi Research Report, 2017 China per week in the first half of the Internet users 26.5 hours, unchanged from 2016, has entered a slow trend.
Locomotive every turn, there will always be people who will be able to move on, there are new people on the bus, but also there will be people to leave. The key problem is whether you still have the beginning of the heart, and still have the courage to travel. The distribution of each time, will be another significant progress in economic and social. This is the law of nature in human beings cannot capture the pursuit, accumulate some weak force. And before long, it will not be back on the road again, heading toward disorder.
We are now in this era is in the inflection point, some of them have been vague from the chaos observed in the next round of opportunities, but also due to be unable to touch, so often feel confused. However humans is in the transformation and evolution of again and again, continue to cast a new monument in civilization process.
Let us recall that the distribution of history is from the consensus reached the summit started brewing. According to this speculation, the next story will repeat as history? Self revolution is very difficult, but often will not be easy to subvert. If we open the distribution of wave again, there will be new participants up to the top of the mountain station in the next time? Still existing giants through iteration and transformation to survive?
In order to answer these questions, we need to look up a analysis of Internet technology details. We know the reason why the Internet can be extended to today the size of the kernel is the TCP/IP protocol, then what is the specific role played by it? We use real life examples, such as when we are delivering goods, the goods are packed into a box or container before transport, and all kinds of information in the network world, is similar to the way through the circulation of goods for transport.
The IP protocol provides the basic unit and the format of data transmission, like the transport of goods specified in the packing box when the size of the packaged goods and packaging procedures. In addition, IP also defines the data packet to submit and routing, such as provisions of the transport of goods and transport routes.
Although the IP protocol has made clear the main content of data transmission, but transmission definition in the IP protocol is one-way, that is to say out the goods you have received is we don’t know, it’s like two dollars a flat. The important message we want to send a registered letter to do? The TCP protocol is to help us to send this letter by registered letter “”.
The TCP protocol provides reliable object-oriented data streaming service rules and conventions. Simply, in TCP mode, the other sent a packet to you, you want to send a confirmation packet to each other. Through the validation rules, can improve the reliability of data transmission.
In the TCP/IP protocol provides the underlying infrastructure, the Internet is used to achieve the final outbreak. Most of what we see today to create a brilliant performance of the company are from the application layer. TCP/IP in fact by using a set of simple and practical design ideas, let each other barrier network is the most efficient for a simple consensus. Which model is the first to achieve the most basic flow, then the complex and personalized program for the website, App solutions.
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