Bitcoin price manipulation case behind the Dark Lord surfaced? The world’s largest stable currency is alleged to be fraudulent, involving 850 million dollars.

Source: Photo Network

The world’s largest stable currency.

Recently, the New York attorney general Letizia James announced that her office to obtain a court order, instructed the publisher of Tether Limited and its related entity Bitfinex virtual asset trading platform operator iFinex Inc. and “tether” virtual currency to stop the violation of New York law activities immediately, they may be in a virtual currency or “encryption” and to deceive investors in New York.

“Our research has identified” Bitfinex “trading platform operators, they also control the” tether “virtual currency, they through a mixture of customer and company funds, cover their losses of $850 million.” New York attorney general Letizia James said.

The New York attorney general’s office website screenshot file charges

A ripple. The information was released, the coin circle moment earthquake. Non small market, from April 26th at 5:00 to 10:50, the price steady at $1 USDT, fell 5%, while the price of bitcoin instant drop from $5476 to about $5179, fell $300, or $5 billion 300 million in market value. Until now, USDT has been accused of fraud case continues to ferment.

Exchange for at least $700 million cash reserve currency stable

What is a stable currency? What is a USDT? Bitfinex and Tether what is the relationship?

According to the non small USDT is introduced, Tether company launched based on the stability of the value of the dollar (USD) Tether USD tokens (USDT), $1USDT=1, users can use USDT and USD to 1:1 exchange at any time. The company strictly abide by the Tether 1:1 reserve guarantee, i.e. 1 per issue USDT tokens, the bank account will have $1 in funding. The user can query the funds on the platform of Tether, in order to ensure transparency. The user can be provided by the SWIFT Tether company to remit us dollar bank account, or by the exchange for $USDT; redemption, reverse operation.

Non small website screenshot

It was released on November 26, 2014, and the encrypted currency exchange bitfinex support. Non small Bitfinex display, China registered in Hongkong, currently ranked eighth in the world for 24 hours, the transaction amounted to 943 million yuan.

Non small website screenshot

1 USDT is always equal to $1, and can be redeemed at any time. Have to admire this “creative genius”. A few years ago, bitcoin day may occur several times as a copy of ups and downs, the dollar in the digital network, USDT has quickly occupied the top spot in the market — whether you are still sprint hunters, jitui hedge, USDT is the first choice of many participants.

Non small display, up to now, USDT is the 3 billion 200 million largest supply, market capitalization ranked eighth in the world, has launched 202 major exchanges, 24 hour trading amounted to $4 billion 300 million. USDT has more important significance for the exchange? Data show that in today’s world bitcoin trading volume 31.31%, it is through the completion of the transaction with USDT, not to mention other kinds of non mainstream encryption currency.

USDT accounts for non market small website screenshot

A company issuing a virtual currency, and declaring that it is equivalent to $1:1, the company has sufficient reserves of U.S. dollars and exchange also admitted.

But this money is really reliable? The company and if the exchange is collusion? Who guarantee 1 USDT behind there is $1? Worry not Weakness lends wings to rumours. The charges in the New York attorney general, has been further clear: “the two companies by the same group owned and operated.”

The New York attorney general’s office website screenshot file charges

The New York attorney general filed explain how Bitfinex in the absence of any written contract or guarantee under the condition of mixed handed over to the customer and the company’s $850 million in cash to a company called “Crypto Capital Corp.” Panama entity, this loss, Bitfinex never disclosed to investors. In order to fill the loss, Bitfinex and Tether executives to participate in a series of conflicts with the nature of the transaction, Bitfinex get $900 million Tether cash reserves, while Tether has repeatedly told investors to fully support its virtual currency by $tether in “1:1”. According to the filing, Bitfinex has received from the Tether reserve at least $700 million. These transactions are not disclosed to investors, Tether’s cash reserves as a financing fund Bitfinex, and used to hide the Bitfinex huge, undisclosed losses and unable to handle customer withdrawals. The office of the document further details the Bitfinex how to confuse those trading ranges and time in the survey period.

In fact, as early as in 2016, Bitfinex has about 120 thousand bitcoins (about $650 million) through social media stolen. Affected by this incident, when bitcoin prices fell 20%.

Manipulate bitcoin

Behind the stable currency USDT without full dollar? In the Tether company, which had appeared.

About USDT behind the cash reserves, after the company has claimed that every 1 USDT company account have $1 corresponding. But the day before, Tether quietly changed the terms. The “daily economic news” reporter login official website Tether found that 100% of the original cash reserves have been modified for our tether by our reserve 100% support, we reserve currency and cash equivalents of traditional, and may include Tether to provide third party loan receivables and other assets, which may including affiliated entities (collectively referred to as “reserves”).”

Tether official website screenshot

Before, the charges in June last year, a University of Texas (University of Texas) of the accused Tether suspected of issuing USDT, bitcoin price manipulation. Crazy directly pointed out that the rise of 2017 bitcoin is not driven by real investor demand papers, but by a few big game player Tether, Bitfinex, price manipulation push behind.

Non small data show that from the beginning of 2017 to the beginning of 2018 to less than $1000, nearly $20000, bitcoin prices rose more than tenfold in 1 years. At the same time USDT market capitalization of $6 million from the beginning of 2017, jumped to $2 billion 200 million in early 2018, Tether is the year the issuance of 2 billion 200 million stable currency, jumped 365 times. Highly consistent with bitcoin prices soared. Since the last 30 days, bitcoin prices rose 30% in the same period, USDT’s market capitalization rose from $2 billion 29 million to $2 billion 787 million, which is only a month, Tether and activate the “money machine”, put 758 million pieces of USDT to the market.

USDT nearly 30 market capitalization of non small website screenshot

USDT through the super to another extreme example of manipulating the price of bitcoin, bitcoin exchange Bitfinex price is higher than other long-term exchange prices. The “daily economic news” reporter also browse some of the world’s head of virtual currency bitcoin exchange offer that several other exchange bitcoin quote about $5237, Bitfinex above, bitcoin price was $5473, several other high $236 exchange. Why would such a big gap?

In fact, if there is such a large price gap, any basic knowledge of Finance and the efficient market hypothesis, the people will think that it provides a good opportunity for arbitrage. So, why not use the opportunistic traders arbitrage?

In this regard, the foreign currency encrypted website Cryptopotato experts believe that the best explanation from previous analyses by Bloq co-founder Jeff Garzik: “this is the exit to buy. If you want to withdraw from the exchange, when the currency withdrawal methods began to fail, people must buy ‘hard currency’ – BTC. Therefore, in the dying exchange, BTC higher prices. In the past the encryption of history, we have seen many times this data model, including but not limited to the Mentougou stock exchange.” The Cryptopotato analysis, in view of all suspicious activity BitFinex, any rational investors are willing to pay a premium, in order to obtain funds from the stock exchange.

Babbitt quotes APP.

At the end of last year, the first year of the 2018 stable currency virtual currency research company PANews and PeckShield jointly launched the “: quantitative analysis of liquidity and stability” the report pointed out that before October 2018, USDT has more than 95% market, occupy the absolute dominant position.

But with the continuous challenge since last year, and accused the New York attorney general, according to coinmarket data, USDT’s market share has dropped to 78%.

Bitfinex was removed from the NASDAQ index

In the face of the New York attorney general action EDT April 26, 2019, encryption currency exchange bitfinex responded, “the court documents the New York attorney general is malicious writing, and full of false assertions, including the alleged $850 million” loss “. On the contrary, we have been told that the encryption amount of capital are not lost, but in fact has been seized and protection. We have been actively trying to exercise our rights and remedies, and release these funds.” Bitfinex tough said, the New York attorney general’s office this behavior more serious as malicious files, filled with false assertions. Bitfinex and Tether will struggle with the New York attorney general’s office.

On the same day, the NASDAQ data research platform provider Bitwise announcement said, given this week, the Attorney General of New York was put forward for Bitfinex fraud caused by public opinion and the influence of Bitwise, after the meeting after the vote, unanimously agreed to remove the Bitfinex from the price index reference exchange, and immediately. Things are obviously intensified.

The data provider Bitwise website screenshot

Stable currency would disappear, what is the future development direction of stable currency? On this event, the “daily economic news” reporter interviewed the domestic digital encryption currency analyst Xiao Lei Xiao Lei said, “stable currency in the future for a long time will still exist, because the entire digital money market is still in the stage of the volatility of the price, if there is no stable currency denominated transactions, valuation status will appear a lot of confusion in addition, stable currency is actually a traditional media through the money market, the world’s major countries are in fact no digital currency trading system completely open, did not provide for the relevant settlement channel, so the stability of currency is actually a digital currency investment exit mechanism, the market demand is relatively obvious.”

“From the perspective of the development of future, stable currency may be replaced by some large institutions subject, because after all, the biggest problem is the stable currency trust risk, behind the funds without any supervision, the issuance of currency stable company is actually capable of misappropriation of investor funds, this is dangerous. There may be more stable currency center endorsement of the future.”

(cover photo: Photo Network)

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Long words say through Polkadot architecture (on)

Editor’s note: the text from a chain learning community (ID:yikuailianxishequ), author Liu Yi, the daily planet Odaily authorized reprint.

Liu Yi, a partner at Capital Random, master of Tsinghua University, block chain and big data technology experts; 20 years of investment experience in a variety of capital market, bitcoin investors early.

This paper discusses the DApp development status, public chain three expansion ideas, Ethernet to Serenity process, Gavin square Wood, Polkadot Cosmos, a new journey into the development of DApp, network topology comparison and analysis of “cross chain”, the next generation of DApp development technology choice in 9 aspects of content.

 Long words say through Polkadot architecture (on)

The main title this share is Polkadot architecture analysis, the subtitle is the next generation of DApp development technologies. In fact, the subtitle better summed up this sharing, because we not only discuss the Polkadot, but a relatively comprehensive review of public platform chain, including Ethernet, Cosmos and other 2 workshops, of course Polkadot is the key.

I want to clear the DApp development technology. This is one of the core problems in the development of block chain industry, it is not only important for developers, but also affect other industry participants. So I try to speak straightforward plain, for non-technical listeners can generally understand.

DApp, why is it important?

 Long words say through Polkadot architecture (on)

I start from the DApp itself, because of a long sequence of events. Finally decided to briefly talk about the logic, otherwise not complete.

DApp is an Internet application of Decentralized Application to the center of the. For example, bitcoin is a DApp, it is the value stored to the center of the encrypted currency. The concept to the center of the complex, V God article presents to the center of the three dimensions of governance structure, and logic, we can take a look.

From the user’s point of view, to the center can be simple to understand, not to be controlled by individual or a small number of participants, so the application of property trust. Block chain is the mainstream of DApp technology, or block chain is the infrastructure of DApp.

The share that block chain, if not specified, refers to the public chain. DApp and the Internet application of the difference lies in the D to the center. So why is it important to the center? Why is IT many Internet practitioners involved? It is not a pseudo pseudo demand concept?

To answer this question most clearly, is a partner in a16z Chirs Dixon, he published an article entitled “Why Decentralization Matters” in February 2018, is important to the center of the why.

To understand his point of view, we must first understand what is the network effect. The network effect is the mechanism for the product or service utility increases with the growth of users.

Such as WeChat, with more people, its function is more powerful, more indispensable. The core of the Internet application is to establish and maintain the network effect, Google, Amazon, BAT and other giants of the business, is to establish a strong network effects, making the latecomers insurmountable.

Chirs believes that the Internet platform to create a network effect, is to do everything possible to attract users, to attract developers and businesses etc.. But after breaking the key scale, platform becomes more and more attractive, its dominance is also more and more strong.

For example, now do business, if you do not rely on Tmall or WeChat, Jingdong, almost impossible to succeed. Because they have formed a huge network effect, consumers and businesses are locked. The Internet platform operators is the enterprise, enterprise’s mission is to maximize profits.

When users and businesses cannot do without platform, the relationship between the business platform with the user changes. We see in the photo above, the beginning of the platform is to attract users, after the formation of the network effect, began to try to make a lot of money from the user’s head.

Between the platform and developers, content creators and businesses, from cooperation to competition. For example, we all know that Baidu search result is not according to the authenticity and importance of information, but who give more money in the front row.

The earliest Baidu extensive contacts with companies, let you submit the information to him, is convenient for users to search. Now if you do not pay, the company’s official website on Baidu will not search. Baidu in order to make money, to guide patients to the hospital department of Putian. But the domestic users still cannot do without knowing this, Baidu, because Baidu is the most data, the understanding of the user, I think is not terrible.

DApp can change the monopoly of the Internet platform. Because DApp is to the center, the economy maintained by transparent consensus. Participants with network is bigger, the corresponding rights is bigger, but no individual can control the situation.

Any party to damage the interests of others, or is not, or will lead to bifurcation. DApp can maintain long-term open and fair, so we do not have to worry about all people burn the bridge after crossing it, his best to participate in the construction, and rewards. Let each person do his best, somewhat similar to the distribution according to work of social ideal.

This is the real open network is the Internet should not forget the early heart. So many big Internet cafes are on DApp and DApp technology. The blockchain spot, and high hopes.

Two, DApp development dilemma

 Long words say through Polkadot architecture (on)

To the center of the application of carrying the great ideal to reshape the Internet, but the situation is very embarrassing, this is clear to everyone, I simply mention.

The first is the user is few, such as forecasting market Auger, DApp star in the field of project financing, the development of tens of millions of dollars, which lasted more than three years, after the on-line users daily living scores, but Auger is not the case.

We look at the top of the chart, from DAppReview, is the etheric Fang DApp users daily living in the top 5, the highest is only 1000 user level, while the Internet’s top application users can reach hundreds of millions of daily living, the gap is 5 orders of magnitude.

Why is DApp so poor? Mainly because the block chain infrastructure suck, making the use of DApp high threshold, poor user experience. As the etheric Fang is a village road, high fees and congestion, of course, no one is willing to go.

The bottom of the map is shown using the Ethernet square ratio, can be seen from the end of 2017 to now, Ethernet is close to the square has been full load operation. It is said that DApp was slow and expensive, but has all the infrastructure, no room for improvement.

In this situation, DApp to break through the key size, create a network effect, with the center of the Internet application competition is not possible, so we must upgrade the blockchain infrastructure.

– block chain extremely redundant structure three reasons, slow and expensive

 Long words say through Polkadot architecture (on)

The cause of DApp was slow and expensive is a limitation block chain platform. This limitation can be summarized as: the blockchain is extremely redundant computing architecture.

Redundancy is to repeat, to repeat the same calculation, repeat the same data stored in computers. Redundancy is intentional, not to waste. Proper redundancy exists in enterprise computing and the internet.

The most typical is the master-slave structure, almost two of the computer is a preparation of a master, perform the same computation, the same data storage. The host machine failure, preparing quickly on top. Although the two machines do a job, but to improve the usability of the system.

But why block chain is extremely redundant? Because of the redundant chain blocks are pushed to the limits of all the computers in the network, whether hundreds or thousands of taiwan. Perform the same computation, the same data storage. The degree of redundancy is incapable of further increase. Extremely redundant means extremely high cost, high cost to what extent?

V God given estimates, is the implementation of computation or data stored in the etheric Fang, than do the same calculation or store the same data in commercial cloud platform, the high cost of 100 million times. The calculation is in general cloud services spending 100 money can be completed, into the etheric Fang do, need 1 million cost. So in considering what business can be made into DApp, we must consider the cost.

Not just to tell the story of money, put in what worthless block chain, it is a huge waste of resources. Then spend 100 million times the cost, can get what benefits? High availability of course be nothing difficult. Bitcoin or Ethernet square network, at any time the computer to join or exit, no impact on the business.

But high availability is clearly not enough, because it only needs the appropriate redundancy can be achieved without extreme redundancy. Extremely redundant our new attribute is brought to the center. Specifically, to the center of the user, permissionless means trustless and censorship ressistancy, is to trust, without permission and anti censorship.

No license is well understood, anyone who wants to use bitcoin, Ethernet square, do not need to apply for others. Anti censorship is also very clear that no one can prevent you from using the block chain. For example, Wikileaks, the most powerful country in the world hate it very much and want to get rid of them, but WikiLeaks can still get bitcoin donations.

The meaning is vague to trust, English is trustless, trust free or trust minimal. I think the most accurate trust minimal trust minimization. Use the application to the center, is actually a block to the whole network trust chain.

For example, the use of bitcoin and Ethernet square, we must trust bitcoin and etheric Fang will not be 51% attacks. Use Cosmos and Polkadot to less than 1/3 malicious verifier believe. So the exact meaning is to trust, trust in the premise of the whole block chain network, can not trust individual miners or verifier, without trust counterparty.

For an application, if the user to trust, without permission from the anti and review of these three benefits, worth 1 million times the cost of the application on the block chain is reasonable. This application? In my view, the current value of this cost, only the value of a storage demand.

The famous bitcoin maximum activist Jimmy Song said, bitcoin will succeed, and the legal tender and all competitive currency will fail. The reason is the center of the center of the past will never dry monetary currency, and to the center of the center of the products but always dry products.

The implicit logic is the same, the Internet service products, the cost difference of 1 million times, of course, but do. His argument is justified, but too rigid. Because of the gap between the cost of 1 million times is not inevitable, can be changed, you can narrow the.

Can you put the cost gap between DApp and the center of the Internet application, from 1 million times closer to 100 thousand times, 10 thousand times or even 1 thousand times. At the same time remains to trust, without permission and anti review of the three major benefits. The answer is entirely possible, as long as the lower degree of redundancy, we can reduce the cost of. Three kinds of methods, which is the three block chain expansion, stratification and Thinking — representative slice.

Four, the first expansion of ideas — representative

 Long words say through Polkadot architecture (on)

The first expansion of ideas — representative, ancient political wisdom from human sources. That democracy is good, but the low efficiency of direct democracy. A British exit by way of a referendum to decide, but obviously not all topics are to engage in a referendum.

The representative is elected representatives, then the representatives agreed legal or major resolutions. There are two reasons to enhance decision-making efficiency is representative, the first number in consensus is greatly reduced and the second is usually a full-time politician, they have more knowledge and resources to negotiate the affairs of state.

A representative way to block chain expansion, the most typical is the DPoS consensus EOS. EOS card holders choose the super node, 21 super node turns out block. Compared with the number of computers in the etheric Fang, consensus decreased by 3 orders of magnitude.

But the calculation ability of Ethernet node square missing, protocol parameter setting to take into account the low-end computer. EOS super node hardware configuration and network bandwidth are demanding the same. So it is not surprising that EOS can reach thousands of TPS, far higher than the etheric fang.

EOS from the date of birth, has been in the teeth of the storm. The encrypted parts of the community criticized EOS, said its center, or even that it does not block chain. But supporters say to the center of EOS is enough. Users can still enjoy to trust, without permission and anti censorship and other benefits.

Then to the center of EOS degree is enough? My opinion is that in some cases, in some cases not enough. Depends on what applications, who is in use.

The great difference between the user and the user, only from the nationality, there are Americans, Chinese, Iran, Korea and so on. There are Gender, age, race, religion, region, occupation, difference.

The other is a specific user, his needs are various, such as social, entertainment, financial cooperation, etc.. Class is divided into many small classes, only to have the financial monetary value storage demand, large transfers demand, micro payment demand etc..

If the most are worth using encryption currency to do long-term value storage, I preferred bitcoin. If the micro payment, or playing mahjong, dice, of course there is no problem with EOS. In the world, from the center to the highest level of bitcoin and Ethernet to the center square, the lowest level of the EOS and wave field.

As to the center of the spectrum of decenralization spectrum. Each public chain, including behind focuses on Polkadot and Cosmos, are occupying a specific position in the spectrum, have the opportunity to apply to specific needs. There is no possibility of one chain fit all a chain all over the world.

Do the architecture design is to do the compromise choice must give up. The core idea of this sharing, is the future of the world is a multi block chain chain, the coexistence of heterogeneous. Of course, I don’t think it takes hundreds of thousands of the chain, because the position is not so much a reasonable alternative. In the localization of similar, network effects will destroy the weak.

Fifth, the expansion of ideas — stratification

 Long words say through Polkadot architecture (on)

Also known as the two layer hierarchical expansion or chain expansion, is part of the transaction on the implementation in the block outside the chain, while still ensuring transaction security. The layered state channel and side chain of two kinds of technology. There is a class of two layers of technology, is to compute intensive tasks to perform under the chain transfer, this has nothing to do with the shared theme, not to mention.

The channel state and the side chain is metaphor different, but in the implementation level, is actually very similar. Because there is a deep inner link and Cosmos side chain, so I spend some time here, talk about the principle of side chain.

To understand the side chain, we must first understand the SPV that SPV is Simplified Payment Verification for simple payment verification. In order to make the limited computing and storage capacity of the equipment to the use of bitcoin, only SPV, or light or light the client node.

Mobile phone wallet is the light of the client, it will not only need to synchronize all blocks, synchronous area size, the amount of data transmission and storage is reduced 1000 times. The left graph is proved using the SPV principle, Merkle tree. Cannot read never mind, just remember the Merkle tree data structure is the most important chain blocks.

It can be used only rarely stored data can prove that a large number of facts have occurred, and belong to a particular set. On the block chain, is the only store size, the future can verify whether the transaction exists in a block.

The side chain is the backbone of assets through the card program lock, corresponding to create passes acceptance in the side chain, a transaction in the side chain, people get draft in the side chain can exchange chain passes. Specifically the Ethernet Plasma square MVP side chain scheme.

The first to deploy Plasma intelligent Ethernet backbone contracts in the workshop, is assumed to have Alice and Bob two user side chain. Alice launched a pass card into the Plasma backbone trading contract, passes by contract lock.

The side chain of Operator Alice in the pass card, will create in the side chain side chain passes, is also the backbone through acceptance certificate. Please note that this is the side chain block chain, it has its own consensus protocol and miners.

In the Plasma MVP program using PoA side chain is the consensus of authority is a Operator that has the final say, it is a Book by. Of course, PoA is not the only choice, the DPoS consensus Plasma side chain adopts Loom.

After the deposit, you can use the Alice card in the Plasma through the MVP chain, for payment or transfer. For example, she can play games with Bob, or passes, may soon play a lot, resulting in a large number of transfer transactions. The node side chain side chain transactions only need to reach a consensus. The side chain is usually much smaller than the size of the main chain, so the execution of transactions faster, the cost is low.

The side chain block area size, will be submitted to the Operator backbone Plasma contract. No matter the side chain of a block containing the number of transactions is 1 thousand or 10 thousand, only the backbone of a transaction recording area size. So the main chain of the Plasma contract, SPV light node equivalent side chain, which stores the area size, which can verify whether the transaction is side chain.

For example, the Alice passes to Bob in the side chain, Bob can send a request to the Plasma contract, including side chain transactions that SPV, said Alice has put these passes to me.

The Plasma contract can verify the transfer transaction in the side chain does exist, so as to meet the requirements of Bob withdrawals. This example illustrates how to deal the hierarchical scheme to perform under the chain, or transferred to the two layer network implementation.

Sixth, a third expansion of ideas — slice

 Long words say through Polkadot architecture (on)

A third expansion idea is divided, the principle is very simple, is to let all nodes perform all transactions. The nodes are divided into many groups, or into many pieces. A plurality of pieces can be processed in parallel transaction processing ability, improve the overall.

Of course, also need a special chain to take care of all slices, which is generally called the backbone, it is to do a lot of work, further detail later. A rough explanation is that if there is no backbone, no connection between multiple slices, that is completely independent of the number of block chain, has nothing to do with the expansion.

The basic idea of piecewise expansion is very simple, but actually doing it is faced with many complicated problems. In order to understand the public several chain back to the comparative analysis, the first thing you have to know about these problems. In addition because the public chain adopts PoS consensus, so we discuss the problem and solving method based on piecewise PoS to discuss.

Problem seven, slice – people choose to verify

 Long words say through Polkadot architecture (on)

After the first is divided, each partition needs a verifier. We look at the picture.

If in a single, malicious verifier can attack the system more than half. After the split, as long as a majority in a slice, you can attack this patch. So the more points, attack cost is low, is also reduced security.

The solution is verified, packet fragmentation is not fixed, but were randomly selected, and every time you re grouping. Such a malicious verifier cannot know in advance which he was assigned to the group, and to send the attack will be punished, so the security of the system will decrease with the increase in the number of piecewise linear.

Key verifier stochastic dynamic grouping, is to have a random number of reliable, random number has been in computer science complex and interesting problem. Go to the center to produce reliable random Byzantine fault tolerance is very difficult, but also block chain hotspot.

Eight, split problem — cross piece transaction integrity

 Long words say through Polkadot architecture (on)

In the partition scheme, each block can run one or more DApp, regardless of whether the DApp are not in the same slice are interoperable. We should make clear what the cross piece interoperability? Because the pieces are block chain, so the cross piece is equal to the cross chain.

We all know the block chain can be viewed as a distributed consensus state machine maintenance, state machine performs the state transfer through the transaction. Cross chain interoperability should lead to both sides of the state transition is two interoperability chain are carried out and the execution of the transaction after the transaction, the state is consistent.

Or that a transaction will cause the cross chain two chain chain and multi state changes, and these changes are either successful or unsuccessful, there is no intermediate state. With this concept of enterprise computing in distributed transaction is very similar.

But the traditional distributed transaction participants are usually a database, and the cross chain transaction participants is a plurality of chain blocks. The concept of non technical background of students may not be familiar with the state machine and distributed transactions. Because the concept of cross chain trading is very important for understanding the share of the conclusion, I use non-technical language to explain.

If you want to transfer 10 thousand dollars from the bank account to the bank account, the transfer transaction is lost from the bank account 10 thousand, ten thousand increase in CCB account. ICBC and China Construction Bank have their own database to store the account balance, so as to have a mechanism to ensure that the two operation of the database, one plus one minus, in any case or success or failure.

If there is no such guarantee, to account for the lost account, CCB did not add, you lost 10 thousand dollars, you will not do. If the bank account did not lose, CCB account plus, you more than 10 thousand pieces, the bank will not do.

This is called distributed transaction integrity or atomicity. Simple? In fact, start very difficult, because whether ICBC CCB which server outage, broken network, software crash and so on, all kinds of extreme conditions, to ensure the integrity of the transaction. In the block chain, transfer into turn passes.

Through a certificate issued in the A chain, through inter chain transfer 10 passes to the B chain, the cross chain after the completion of the transaction, A in the chain of 10 passes is frozen, B chain of more than 10 passes. The two state change under any conditions, either successful or failed.

Because of the block chain may bifurcate, cross piece trading is more complex than the traditional distributed transactions. We can see, if the cross piece transaction in the slice on the 1 part is packaged in the A block, the 2 slice was X ‘piece of packing. The two pieces are likely to appear bifurcation, A block and X block might be abandoned isolated block. Is the cross piece transaction may partially successful partial failure, integrity is destroyed

How to solve this problem? We analyze, the cause of cross chain transaction integrity is destroyed, a part of the deal to be packed into a block, but the chain can block the reorganization, can become a solitary block.

It is the transaction into the block, but unreliable, may go back, there is no clear official final. The final finality is bound to be included in the block chain block.

In bitcoin blockchain, behind a block block even more, it is reversed or abandon the possibility is low, but never 100% sure, so called the probability of the final or asymptotic consistency. The solution to this problem is to have mechanisms to block with the final clear, not vague.

The end of the activity of VS – 9, fragmentation problem

 Long words say through Polkadot architecture (on)

Finalize is the block with the final, I translated into finalized. The block is final. A simple method is a block that is finalized. Tentermint Cosmos this is the consensus. But this can be a problem in the special case.

We look at the pictures, a Tendermint block chain normal export agreement. Suddenly the submarine cable is broken, the Internet is divided into two parts. The two part of each general verifier node. The Tentermint consensus requires the collection to more than 2/3 to a verifier signature.

Is cut off, the two part of the network are the most collected half signature verifier, so a stop, or block chain lost activity liveness. Some people think that this can be tolerated, is the special circumstances, the first stop, and then continue to work to restore normal network etc..

Submarine cable is broken, the Internet, telephone, video conference is affected by, what blockchain cannot pause? Some people believe that a stop block is not acceptable, always keep the blockchain activity. Then what shall I do? Way is to block and finalized separately, also known as mixed consensus.

A break in just said network, in two separate networks, nodes can continue to block, but not enough to verify the people involved, so not finalized. Network recovery, and decide which blocks are finalized, which have both activity and final.

It can make individual nodes mixed consensus turns quickly, at the same time, to finalize the process can be slow, so that a large number of nodes involved, ensure to the center, improve the attack and collusion difficulty, also is the guarantee of the safety. So the mixed consensus also take into account the performance and safety. Ethernet and Polkadot are mixed by 2 square consensus.

The effectiveness of problem ten, slice – Trading

 Long words say through Polkadot architecture (on)

There was a piece of the problem is the validity of the transaction. The effectiveness of the transaction is to prevent invalid transactions into blocks, as part of a block to maintain the chain of historical truth.

For example bitcoin, if I were a super big miners, mastered much stress. I want to forge a deal to put my address on others bitcoin, can it be done? The answer is not to do.

Because the deal did not address corresponding private key signature, is invalid, including the transaction block is invalid, will not be accepted by other nodes. Even if I do most of the work force, can dig out the longest chain, but also is to build a long branch.

Many of the bitcoin wallet, the exchange will not be recognized this bifurcation. So the 51% attacks, and not the BTC who stole, or created out of thin air bitcoin. Is the largest double attack, double start talking. In a word, the bitcoin network is not the problem of effective transaction.

So a ten years ago was the perfect solution to the problem of how they will appear? The reason is the node BTC and other companies have all the data chain, so it can completely independently verify the validity of the transaction. Now a number of slices, nodes only store some data, it cannot independently verify the validity of the transaction.

We look at the map, there are two pieces, 1 pieces have been controlled by malicious verifier, in B block packing invalid transaction to their address, for example just created a lot of passes. In the next block C, attackers launched a cross piece transaction, should pass card to patch 2 on the DApp, may be to the center of the exchange. C block inside the patch 2 to see the transaction have no problem, but no 2 slice C block before the data, so can not verify the validity of the transaction.

Here we introduce a solution to the validity of the transaction scheme in patch environment, called reward. In fact, there are other options, but have nothing to do with the subject, omitting it.

See right figure, slice 1 although the malicious verifier control, but there is at least one honest verifier. Slice 2 cannot verify the validity of cross chain transactions, will choose to believe that patch 1, packed cross chain transactions. This time slice 1 in honest nodes can jump out the report, said the B block is illegal, I have the evidence.

The system has accepted the report, will punish malicious verifier patch 1, confiscate the passes they pledge, and provide incentives for whistleblowers. So why do some block chain, passes the verifier to recover the pledge, need to wait a few months. The main reason is to report and verify the report set aside enough time.

Above we introduced four pieces of problems and corresponding solutions. In fact, the problem of fragmentation expansion more than these, because of the limited time, will no longer be listed.

Eleven, Fang zhengshuo – Serenity Ethernet

 Long words say through Polkadot architecture (on)

Lay1 expansion of next generation Ethernet is piecewise square. On the next generation Ethernet workshop, information is very confusing, even the names are not unified, there are 2 square, Serenity, Shasper Ethernet, Casper Ethernet square, we called Serenity.

We look at the Serenity chart, Taiwan senior researcher Wang Shao as Ms. Fang ether production. Look down from the top, the top is the main chain of PoW, which is currently running the etheric fang. Serenity does not replace the PoW side chain chain, but by the way of on-line deployment.

But in the long run, Serenity is not dependent on the Pow chain, three layer below the PoW belongs to Serenity, and the corresponding three stages in the evolution of Serenity.

The first is the Beacon Chain beacon chain, the main function is to verify the management of people. The beacon chain on the line, if you want to become the Serenity verification, the ETH from the Pow chain to chain beacon. Or by the side chain, the beacon chain deployment of smart contracts in the main chain of PoW.

Eth beacon is one-way into the chain, PoW chain cannot be reversed from the beacon chain. Have eth in the beacon chain, pledge and operation nodes, can be verified. In order to achieve full to the center of the Serenity verifier threshold is very low, only need to pledge 32 ETH, validation set will be very big, can reach tens of thousands to tens of thousands of this magnitude.

The beacon chain is also responsible for generating a random number, used to verify the packet and block people. Beacon chain executive PoS consensus agreement, including its own consensus and all the fragments of chain consensus, rewards and punishment of the verifier. There is a transit cross piece trading station. The beacon chain expected at the end of this year or early next year on the line.

There are a number of teams in the beacon node chain of software development, there are several teams have been deployed in the test network. The next phase will deploy test network the long-term operation of the public, the node, each team put together for test.

The beacon is a plurality of pieces down the chain chain, the picture is divided into 100 pieces. Slice chain is regarded as the data layer of Serenity, responsible for the storage of transaction data, maintain data consistency, availability and activity, which is to ensure the always block, will not be locked. Slice chain on-line time is uncertain.

Below the slice chain is the virtual machine, virtual machine is responsible for the implementation of smart contracts and transfer transaction, change state, is zoned to read and write data chain. Serenity is an important design decision is the data layer slice chain and logic execution engine virtual machine decoupling.

Decoupling brings many benefits, such as can be separately developed separately or on-line upgrade etc.. Will use the wasm Serenty virtual machine, can improve the performance, and supports a variety of programming languages.

How Serenity said before the four piece puzzle? The first is the management of the verifier pool in the chain of beacons, randomly assigned a group to verify the person for each slice chain. The mixed consensus, the verifier turns out the block, Casper FFG to finalize the final. For the validity of the transaction security reward method.

A new journey, Gavin Wood – Polkadot twelve

 Long words say through Polkadot architecture (on)

Share to midway, finally turn off the protagonist Polkadot. Gavin Wood is the soul of Polkadot, most of the students already know of him, do not understand the Internet search, I have not introduced.

Gavin Wood is the founder of the Web3 foundation, is also the current president, Polkadot is the core project of the Web3 foundation. Similar to the relationship between Ethernet and Ethernet foundation Fang fang.

About Web3, it is necessary to introduce. In the Web3 foundation and the Polkadot project document, written expression of Web3 vision is not the same. But it contains two meanings.

The first layer: Web3 is no server, go to the center of the internet. No serverless server is to the center of the meaning, because in the Web3 vision of the network computing architecture, participants or nodes are equal, no difference between the server and the client, the formation and records of all nodes are more or less involved in network consensus. Go to the center of the Internet have what use?

The second layer of meaning is Web3: everyone can grasp their own identity, assets and data.

The master of your own identity, means that there is no need for other people or organizations to give identity, other people or organizations can not be fraudulent or freeze identity. Master of their own assets, means not deprived of assets, free disposal of assets. The master of your own data, means that everyone can according to their own wishes of generation, preservation, concealment or destruction of personal data, without his permission, the use of their personal data are not any person in any organization.

The unique vision is not Web3 Web3 foundation or Polkadot project. A lot of block chain projects, including bitcoin, Ethernet square, have a similar vision. All kinds of names, including the open network, the next generation of the Internet. What name is not important, you should think about the connotation of Web3 vision, it is not what you want the Internet?

Gandhi said: Be the change you want to see in the world. I translated into: towards the world you want. If Web3 is your identity vision, then participate to work.

Polkadot is the backbone of the Web3, is the infrastructure of Web3, Gavin Wood and Web3 Web3 foundation pointed out, leading to the vision of the road.

Substrate is an open source framework for the development of Polkadot block chain formed in the process of project development, can be used to build Polkadot ecosystem, can also be used for other purposes to construct block chain.

Click here to read the words “to be continued, long said through Polkadot architecture (under)”

Long words said through Polkadot architecture (below)

Editor’s note: the text from a chain learning community (ID:yikuailianxishequ), author Liu Yi, the daily planet Odaily authorized reprint.

Liu Yi, a partner at Capital Random, master of Tsinghua University, block chain and big data technology experts; 20 years of investment experience in a variety of capital market, bitcoin investors early.

Click here to read the words “long said through Polkadot architecture (on)”

Thirteen, Polkadot architecture

 Long words said through Polkadot architecture (below)

Next we introduce the Polkadot architecture, Chinese version of Polkadot white paper of the two images are from the translation of Yue Lipeng.

Look at the right side of the figure, the basic structure of Polkadot network is a star, or called the spoke type. The star is the center of Polkadot Relay relay chain, periphery is many Parachain parallel chain.

Look at the small figure on the left side of the Polkadot network, participants have four characters: Validator, Nominator, verify the nominee Collator collection or check, Fisherman fishing or fisherman.

DApp can be deployed in parallel intelligent contracts on the chain, or the chain is a parallel DApp. The user initiates the transaction in parallel chain transactions are collected are collected and packaged into blocks, to a group of people to verify the validation.

This group of people is not from the parallel verification chain, the verifier pool but from intermediate chain management, by grouping randomly assigned to parallel chain. Each parallel chain has an outlet and an entrance queue queue. If the user initiated cross chain transactions, the transaction will be on the import and export queue. Be parallel to the target chain were collected into the entrance queue.

The target parallel chains from the implementation of the transaction, generating block, finalized by the validation group. Polkadot uses a hybrid consensus protocol, protocol English abbreviation is BABE, a child; finalize the agreement is the abbreviation of GRANDPA, grandpa.

Just talk about mixed consensus, some students may ask: a fast, slow wait to finalize finalized, the block will not be more? No, GRANDPA each round can be finalized a number of blocks, so as to catch up with the progress of. So the child is lively, walking light; grandpa is good, with vigorous strides. An old small complement each other.

In addition to the parallel chain, there are two types of peripheral blocks into the relay link chain. One is through the bridge, it can not be directly linked to the existing, block links into the relay chain, such as Ethernet square and bitcoin etc.. From the relay chain perspective, is a parallel chain transfer bridge.

From the etheric Fang or bitcoin’s point of view, through the bridge is a side chain. In addition, in order to make the system have unlimited scalability, can also have two stage relay chain. But the two relay is currently no specific design ideas.

We have introduced the collected and verified the function of the system, then the nominee and the fisherman is what to do? The nominee is Polkadot through DOT based card holders, he hopes to gain DOT pledge. But either because the number of DOT is low, either the lack of operation and maintenance of the verifier node professional skills.

So the system provides another way to participate, is Chibidaigou choice he trusted verifier, to pledge their DOT through verification, verification of revenue sharing. The benefits of doing so is to improve the overall pledge ratio, enhance the security of the system, but also make income distribution more equitable. The economic model on the Polkadot, is a very complicated and interesting topic, we will not say more.

Just introduced the effectiveness of transactions over piece of architecture, as well as reward solutions, so it is not difficult to understand the role of the fisherman. He is the monitoring and reporting of illegal transactions, earn a bonus character. It sounds simple, but it is very complex.

Some students may think the report is this: to the Web3 foundation email: I found someone to pack evidence of illegal transactions, see annex, look forward to your reply. After a few days the Web3 foundation reply: your report has been confirmed, the perpetrators have been executed, bonuses will be sent to your address, thank you for your support to our work.

But the report is not completely block chain like this. The fisherman is a software process, it monitors the network of illegal behavior, once found to block chain report submitted to the transaction. The report also deals through consensus process, through the 2/3 above is verified, packaged into blocks, penalties and rewards are also trading chain blocks.

The whole process is automatically, to the center of the implementation. There are many complicated problems, such as how to provide incentives to the fisherman. The fisherman as the police, you may think that it is very simple, catch a bad hair a bonus.

There are a bunch of police every day staring at the network, no one dare to do evil, the police have been unable to get a bonus. The police have the operation cost, to verify and store a large amount of data, no income will not go dry. The police diverted, the bad guys will appear. You might think, to the police for your salary, basic salary plus commission.

Well, I can claim to be the police, to receive a salary. But I did not verify and store transaction data, the cost is 0, my salary is profit. When a bad guy, I said sorry, I didn’t see, or that I just broke the hard disk, then the system should be how to punish me?

There is not any report, report processing system cost, just report it would be dust vulnerabilities. In addition to report to report whether the transaction should be how to deal with, etc.. So in the decentralized environment, reporting mechanism is very complex. The working mechanism of Polkadot, at present I have yet to see specific instructions.

In Polkadot network, parallel chains assume their respective transactions, data storage, and parallel chain can interoperate with each other, have achieved the target slice. So I put Polkadot as a piecewise expansion scheme. You can compare with Serenity. You will find Polkadot than Serenity more complicated technology.

Slice Serenity is an isomorphism, with the same capacity of uniform consensus protocol. As is to provide standard containers used by the DApp specifications are the same, the developers choose a slice, put their DApp into the well.

Polkadot is the Web3 backbone network, it cannot and should not require parallel chain is uniform. Parallel chain can decide what to use, what kind of economic consensus protocol model and governance model, decide the hardware and network configuration and so on. In parallel chain is autonomous, Polkadot can be regarded as parallel chains or federal union.

Polkadot relay chain to support heterogeneous parallel links, and then realize the interconnection complexity over beacon chain Serenity. The technical complexity of the benefits is that parallel chain flexibility, without side chain 1000, according to the specific requirements and constraints, the optimal design of parallel chain development.

Fourteen, the same Cosmos

 Long words said through Polkadot architecture (below)

Here we introduce Cosmos, starting from the side chain. Look at the top left of the figure, A and B are two chains each side chain. That is to say, A contains the B SPV light chain chain chain to the client, A can verify B chain transactions. In turn, the B chain also contains the A SPV light chain and B chain authentication client, A chain trading.

Each side chain is the result of issuing passes in the A chain and B chain can huzhuan. If the expansion from two strands to multiple chains, A and B into A/B/C/D/E/F, an extrapolation idea is still uses the 22 mutual side chain approach, on the formation of the structure of the bottom left.

But it will come a lot of problems, each chain should be built in all other light chain client, all other synchronous chain area size, this is certainly a great burden. But every increase a chain, need to be modified in all other chain. With the increase of the number of chain blocks, the complexity of n* (n-1) /2, exponential growth, which is obviously not feasible.

The solution is to change the structure of the upper right picture shows, on the middle of a Hub Hub, this is also the block chain, it all are for the side chain chain. That is to say, through each card on the chain can go to Hub, and then Hub to the other chain, the complexity of network interconnection with the block chain number is linear relationship.

This is the practice of Cosmos, in the definition of Cosmos, access to the Hub chain called Zone partition. To access the Hub partition need 2 conditions, the first is in line with the Cosmos standard protocol, IBC chain communication protocol. The second is the requirement that the Zone has the final instant, to ensure consistency across the chain.

The Internet and Cosmos can support multiple Hub. For the existing chain, can access Cosmos Hub protocol adapter, Cosmos protocol adapter gateway called Peg Zone anchored partition. The resulting structure is right below the picture.

We start from the side chain deduction Cosmos architecture. But looking back, Cosmos partition assume their respective transactions, data storage, and can also partition between interoperability, also achieved the target. Therefore I also considered Cosmos slice expansion scheme.

Some people may disagree with this classification of. But Never mind, Cosmos is Cosmos, the classification is in order to better understand it. From a different perspective and interpretation, can use different classification methods, there is no absolute right and wrong.

Cosmos Hub and other Cosmos SDK development of the partition by Tentermint consensus protocol, and finalize the process block is one, as long as the block is obtained above 2/3 to verify the signature verifier. The benefits of doing so is simple and fast, a time to reach the second level or second level, but also has the final instant.

But in the network partition occurs, Tentermint may suspend a consensus. Cosmos and Hub partition has verified respectively, do not need to verify the dynamic random grouping. So how to protect the Cosmos cross chain transaction effectiveness? According to my understanding, Cosmos avoided this question.

Hub cannot verify the validity of the transaction, only to verify the existence of. If a partition is malicious verifier control, then the user assets in this partition is not safe, may be stolen. But this should not be regarded as Cosmos vulnerabilities, but its design choices.

Cosmos is often compared with Polkadot, but Polkadot and Serenity were more similar in architecture. A few days before the orange book article three village analogy is very appropriate. But from the viewpoint of DApp development, especially this year and next year’s heavyweight DApp development, mainly from the Polkadot and Cosmos two.

Technically, Cosmos is better than Polkadot or Serenity more simple. I am here to say simply is not derogatory, under the premise of meeting the demand, technical scheme should be as simple as possible. So a relatively simple scheme with Cosmos slice also achieved the purpose of expansion, is not very good?

Really good, so I also very optimistic about the Cosmos, it will be very suitable for certain types of DApp. But as we have repeatedly emphasized, income will be lost. Cosmos chose simple, but sacrifice in security. The security level of PoS block chain is decided by market capitalisation and pledge proportion.

The line after the Polkadot, the total market value of assuming Dot is $1 billion, half of the pledge on the network, then to double attack on the Polkadot network, the theory requires a minimum of $167 million will be more practical needs. It is a huge sum of money, so the Polkadot network is very safe, the cross chain trading with high security.

After the Cosmos main line, Atom card will be very high market value, but the network pledge Atom, only Cosmos Hub security guarantee. Partition and other Hub will be issued through their own cards to establish economic model, security.

But the partition is usually to the center of the particular application, the application scale and the market value of less than Cosmos/Polkadot such a large platform level. So it can be expected, the security level is lower than the Cosmos Hub Cosmos partition.

You cross chain trading at Cosmos. Initiate partitions need trust transaction, the target partition and Hub, if the intermediate cross chain transactions through multiple Hub, then each Hub after all to be trusted.

On the one hand is the need to trust the blockchain changed much, but the security level of some chain may not be high. So Cosmos do not trust minimization. The safety level is reduced, but decreased after enough to use? May or may not be enough, and due to the application of It differs from man to man..

Cosmos certainly knows its own short board, to provide security for the partition in future versions. It will be very difficult to achieve. To provide security for the partition, needs a large amount of verification, can only modify the consensus protocol, the block and finalized separately, of course, stochastic dynamic grouping and transaction efficiency problems verified. This is a change down the complexity of Cosmos and Polkadot are almost the same.

Fifteen, support the comparison of DApp

 Long words said through Polkadot architecture (below)

Then Serenity, Polkadot and Cosmos which is more suitable for the development of DApp? We compare.

The first DApp development mode, three chain can use smart contracts. Polkadot and Cosmos brought a new style of DApp development, is the development of a specific application block chain. Application of Cosmos chain to provide the tool is Cosmos SDK, currently supports Go language development. Application of Polkadot chain tool provided by Substrate, currently supports Rust language development.

Substrate application development tool chain is complete, with the application of chain model, Gavin Wood demonstrated in a new computer, released a 15 minute application chain. In addition, Substrate all modules can be customized or replaced, powerful and very flexible.

In comparison, Cosmos SDK to be thin, it mainly provides Tendermint consensus engine and IBC link communication protocol and passes the core module, most of the superstructure needs to develop.

On the performance of Serenity, each fragment is about 100tps, is still gas price high priority transaction processing. Polkadot Hub should be able to reach thousands of TPS, parallel chains can decide consensus algorithm, hardware and network, in theory there is no performance limitation. Cosmos Hub and the vast majority of partition by Tendermint, can reach thousands of tps.

About interoperability. Serenity and Ethernet square is the same as the 1, smart contracts can call each other. Polkadot parallel chain through Relay and other parallel chain interoperability, interoperability with other chain by Bridge.

Cosmos partition can huzhuan passes through Hub, by anchoring the partition with other chain huzhuan passes. IBC news and data fields, like e-mail attachments, by extending the data field, can also pass through the partition between card outside data.

Serenity access mode with Ethernet Fang 1, developers to deploy smart contracts. Polkadot Relay access to the auction slot, pledge the amount of money DOT. Cosmos is similar to Polkadot, Atom access pledge auction qualification.

Then the security patch as previously said Serenity is a standard container, put it in the DApp on the line, the safety guarantee system by. The opposite is Cosmos, regardless of whether the application of chain access Hub, are their own security. The application of Substrate chain development is the two option, or access Relay into parallel chain, by Polkadot security; or independent operation, to ensure the safety of their own.

The last is the DApp upgrade, Serenity and Ethernet square 1, does not support smart upgrade contract. Many people may have been used to it, but I think that does not support the upgrade is a big defect, and may lead to serious security problems. The first is not possible without bug code.

Solidity intelligent contract development language is not friendly to even do formal verification, formal verification, achieve the logical path of 100% coverage is not realistic. The second is DApp Internet applications, Internet applications should be flexible, iterative evolution.

Some people will think it is so intelligent agreed contract, can not be changed. In fact, the real world of the contract, have agreed to cancel or modify the terms. About two companies signed the contract, now the two sides have agreed to amend the contract, the contract itself limits can not be changed, the absurdity of the situation.

Don’t pull what code is the law, the law is not immutable and frozen, can amend the code could be abolished, but no, not very strange? The result is very absurd, on the one hand DApp has strong upgrading demand; on the other hand, the platform does not support the upgrade. So developers to find their own way, using the method of delegateCall rudimentary, awkward to achieve scalable, also called scalable design patterns.

With this approach, developers can without the user’s consent, or even modify the smart contract in case the user’s knowledge. Then the code is legal and what meaning? How can the user know intelligent contract or not can be upgraded to upgrade, which will not change what logic? Only to see their own code. It is no wonder that there are so few users of Ethernet fang. Anyway, I can not use the etheric Fang DApp. I have studied the fomo3d contract, he did not see a random number of vulnerabilities.

A small bug multi signature wallet contract Parity, lock up billions of dollars, and a lot of people hang up their. If you want to thoroughly study and use the DApp code to the trust, the world’s DApp target users, which is probably thousands.

To develop to the center of the Internet application competition DApp upgrade is a must. It must be platform support standard upgrade, not DApp gexianshentong. Analog Android platform, mobile phone App often upgrade, but the user must be informed and agreed that the new version of App increased the demand to display to the user permissions.

These are the platform control, mobile phone App can only follow not spare. The DApp upgrade should be more standardized and more stringent management, because the DApp is encrypted assets, and no trusted center. Polkadot and Cosmos allow the application of chain upgrade, Cosmos partition is own upgrade, parallel chain Polkadot can upgrade security.

How to realize the parallel chain security upgrade Polkadot, I also didn’t understand. A few weeks ago, Gavin wood Chinese, about Trust Wormhole trusted wormhole, I don’t quite understand. Who understand this part hopes to enlighten me.

In a word, in to the center of the block chain, realize the normative security system upgrade is very difficult, but there is no other choice, must support the upgrade, but also the safety of the platform security specification upgrade. I think in terms of scalability, only the direction of Polkadot is the right choice.

Sixteen, network topology comparison

 Long words said through Polkadot architecture (below)

Now to talk about, Serenity, Polkadot and Cosmos these three blocks in the full development of the ecological chain, will form a network topology what. Note that the logical network, not the physical network. In addition to the full development of network needs time, is discussed here about 5 years after the picture, some content is based on the architecture design of speculation.

First look at the left side, the Serenity network is like a guard of phalanx. The beacon chain is the standard bearer or team leader, each column is a standard piece. Each partition can carry some DApp. The middle of the map is Polkadot. Polkadot network is a tree, the root is the relay chain, can be connected with a plurality of parallel chains. Parallel chains may be the application of special business chain, can also support intelligent contract DApp platform.

In addition to other types of blocks through the chain bridge access relay. Analysis of Polkadot structure shows that the number of people because of verification and other restrictions, the single relay can support a limited number of parallel chains. This is about ten to one hundred magnitude, it is difficult to reach hundreds of.

Of course, even reach hundreds, also cannot achieve Web3 vision. So Polkadot will support future relay cascade. It is a root relay access relay, two relay access level relay, which has unlimited expansion capability.

On the right side of the map is Cosmos. A Hub Cosmos can be interconnected, each Hub connecting multiple partitions. There are other types of anchor patched block chain. Cosmos network topology and Polkadot rough looks like, is a tree structure. But Cosmos Hub and Hub, no one to whom to provide security problems, so there is no level.

If the hierarchy is regarded as the direction of the connection, then Polkadot is a directed acyclic graph, Cosmos is a directed acyclic graph. In fact, Cosmos network topology can be a ring, should be in order to avoid the cross chain message routing problems, choose the design without ring.

In comparison, I think the Serenity growth mode and resource allocation are rigid. The system is a top-down growth, support more divided by iteration. DApp choose which slice, faced with some uncertainty. For example, a DApp is very successful, it needs to exceed the processing ability of how to do a single slice capacity?

At present there is no way. In addition, when the DApp on-line you choose a relatively free slice. The same piece of soil especially popular D App, then your users can only endure high cost and congestion.

This is a block chain computing resources can not do on DApp distribution according to need. Cosmos and Polkadot growth is a bottom-up, there have been new application chain join, will also have the application of chain exit, resource allocation is more flexible.

Cosmos with the biggest difference between the other two platforms are not shared security, to a certain extent at the expense of trust is minimized, in front of the already mentioned. So Polkadot has shared security and bottom-up organic growth, is the best? Polkadot does have these advantages, but it also has its own disadvantages.

I think the biggest problem is the access threshold of parallel chains will be very high. According to the current published auction plan, by the end of 2020, only 24 access slot. If you develop the parallel chain, hope that next year will be with on-line, many of the world’s team competition this 24 places.

Of course, the future of intelligent edgeware contracts after the line on the platform, to a certain extent, lowering the threshold for DApp. In contrast, deployed on the Serenity DApp no threshold. Cosmos will be much better, because Cosmos Hub can support more slots, also in the ecological system will have multiple Hub, the formation of market competition.

From the bigger picture, Serenity, Polkadot and Cosmos interconnection is feasible, it will happen. EOS uses the DPoS block chains can be connected in, coupled with the side chain of two layer network, the Internet will block the formation of heterogeneous chain.

Seventeen, “on the cross chain

 Long words said through Polkadot architecture (below)

This share is close to the end, we began to discuss the concept of cross chain. I think the reason is “cross chain” concept is ambiguous, misleading. At least I own misguided for a long time. Used to see on the Cosmos and Polkadot materials are used them to introduce cross chain solutions.

I think why the cross chain? The cross chain capable? Although there are now hundreds of thousands of the chain, but there are a few useful? Bitcoin is one, someone will add Ethernet / EOS square, some people will add ZCash/Monero, anyway, is 35.

Just a few useful chain, what can cross? The feeling is your pants off – make an unnecessary move. So before I saw the introduction of Cosmos and Polkadot in the article, glanced at the title of the past, do not point into.

Until last year, Gavin Wood in Munich Substrate demo, I know Polkadot is a new generation of public chain architecture is a new form of divide and rule, DApp. From then on, I began to pay attention to this field.

Polkadot and Cosmos’s vision blockchain picture of the future, not one chain fit all a chain all over the world, nor the one chain rule them all a chain reigns, but formed by numerous heterogeneous chain network connecting block. The Internet is able to cross between block chain chain transactions, so the cross chain is the ability to block Internet heterogeneous chain.

Bitcoin, Ethernet and other public square chain block chain added to the Internet, is one of the results rather than the full content of the cross chain. So in my opinion, the cross chain concept is not wrong, but if you understand and become cross cross, did not seize the key.

The heterogeneous block chain to achieve cross chain trading is defined as the cross chain. Then we say what is not the cross chain, or on the market which is the so-called cross chain in cry up wine and sell vinegar. First, the cross chain must be consistent changes in two or more block chain state is a write operation.

If one is read, the other side is written, or is to modify another block a block chain chain according to the state of the data, this is not called the cross chain. Of course, read data from a plurality of chain, more than the cross chain.

There is a requirement, not only to achieve cross chain transactions and cross chain transactions should be to trust. Or take the Cosmos card through the cross chain transfer for example, from A Hub to 10 after partition passes into the B partition, you need to believe, Hub and B A partition three partition block chain network.

The three net worth of trust? You need to decide if, to the center of the high degree of PoS, the high price of pledge passes, attack is difficult, it is worth to trust. Some of the so-called cross chain scheme, Hub itself is not a block chain, but a gateway gateway, so worthy of trust?

The answer is not known, the gateway is a computing device of single entity operation. The premise is the operating entity trust trust gateway. For example, we put the money in the bank, through Alipay money, nor what is wrong. Ali and the industrial and commercial bank are worthy of trust, so they also trusted gateway operation.

But no matter whether the gateway is trustworthy, I do not belong here about the cross chain. We say that the cross chain, Hub adopts distributed books technology, but also to the center of the operation, so as to realize the minimization of trust.

To see the cross chain project called later, can be resolved, is to the center of the cross chain trading does not support heterogeneous block chain. If you can not support, it said the cross chain with Cosmos and Polkadot are not the same concept.

The development of DApp technology, the next generation eighteen

 Long words said through Polkadot architecture (below)

I personally believe that the DApp has landed only one, is bitcoin. Bitcoin is a store of value type currency to the center, or call the number of gold. Because the value is stored, so it is of very low performance requirements.

In the next few years, to the center of the payment and settlement currency exchange and is likely to fall. Type of payment and settlement currency, should be directly or indirectly linked with purchasing power. Now, usdt, tusd, JP Morgan currency, and the future of the currency, the central bank Facebook encryption is the center of the legal tender. Not to trust, without permission and anti censorship.

Lightning network and MakerDAO is an important attempt, may bring a breakthrough. Money, loans, asset distribution, asset trading, insurance, derivatives… We can change the world, to subvert the traditional financial also only a few really landing DApp. With the block chain expansion, infrastructure is awesome, DApp will usher in a real outbreak.

The programmer how to become DApp goers, DApp development technology we comb the next generation. Note that DApp is an Internet application. The development of the Internet of the back-end, front-end, mobile terminal, browser, desktop technology is still valid, but not within the scope of the discussion, we only talk about the implementation of decentralized technology.

Three expansion ideas, each has a variety of realization, I only list representative projects. On behalf of the representative is EOS and wave field expansion. Hierarchical expansion into state channel and the side chain of two branches, the state channel plan includes Celer Network, Counterfactual, Loom, OmiseGo and other side chain. Three typical program slice, Serenity, Polkadot and Cosmos have been introduced one by one.

So, the development of DApp technology in the next generation seems to have a lot of. In fact, not only for the development of DApp, and is the intelligent contract. Smart contracts have two mainstream programs, EVM and Wasm. We list the basic project, support EVM, now or in the future will support Wasm.

The main development language is EVM Solidity, has been formed around the Solidity ecosystem, including Truffle/Remix/OpenZepplin tools, a large number of technical information, examples, community discussion and answer and so on, but also has a considerable number of programmers in Solidity language. So master Solidity, can ensure that the development of DApp in most public chain.

The only exception is EOS, EOS does not support EVM, but one step using wasm. Wasm is the standard in the future development of smart contracts, can support the development of intelligent programming language with a variety of contracts, including java\c++\go\rust and so on.

Cosmos and Polkadot provide second ways to the development of the DApp, is the development and application of block chain. Compared with the intelligent application of contract, the advantage of the chain is of great flexibility. Developers can choose or customize the consensus algorithm, governance model, economic model and so on, and according to the actual demand of hardware and network configuration.

But on the other hand, the application of chain development, operating costs will be significantly higher intelligent contract. For example, to deploy the Cosmos partition chain, at least 4 or more of the host, but also to pledge a considerable number of Atom card to access the Hub. Can be expected to achieve a certain scale team, have the chain of sufficient resources to develop and operate Cosmos or Polkadot.

A brief summary is: the next generation of DApp development technology of two kinds of intelligent, lightweight and heavyweight contracts, the application of chain. An individual or a small entrepreneurial team will mainly use smart contracts. Large enterprises or have sufficient resources to support entrepreneurial projects, will use the application chain.

There is a reasonable approach is to first use of smart contracts to realize DApp, the verification and feedback, to develop more perfect function and application chain experience better.

How to choose nineteen, developers?

 Long words said through Polkadot architecture (below)

The back-end or full stack engineer to select DApp development technology? I think the blockchain world of the future will be heterogeneous block chain networks, multiple platforms will have their own living space, do not have to say who will replace him.

So my advice is: mainly consider the current conditions to select the technical route, such as the ability of currently available platforms, the skills of team members and so on. Not too tangled the uncertainty of the future.

If the project has been started, it will continue to go along the line. If not, the first clear is the development of public DApp chain or the development of enterprise solutions. If the public is the development of chain DApp, then the need to existing DApp interoperability. If it is, then we should develop public choice in the existing DApp on the same chain.

That is to say you need interoperability of DApp in Ethernet workshop, you will develop in the etheric workshop. In EOS, you have developed in EOS. One might ask, can not cross the chain? The cross chain is very complex, and certainly not free. Under the premise of meeting the demand, implementation should be as simple as possible. So as to avoid the cross chain, of course should be avoided.

That if you do not need to interoperate with existing DApp? It implied a problem is, you will DApp with future DApp interoperability? Or others will DApp to your DApp interoperability.

For example, you develop a pass card contract, as the company’s business integration system. If your company uses a wide range of integration, is not can be traded to the center of the exchange, is not can be used as collateral for loans to assets of DApp? The success of DApp should be as far as possible into the ecological value of the internet. So DApp interoperability is not an option, but the basic needs of DApp, but not necessarily with the existing DApp interoperability.

The next question is: DApp is not only the need for management through the encryption card? If the answer is yes, should give priority to the Cosmos, if the answer is no, you should choose the Substrate. Why? We have seen, Cosmos can cross the chain through transfer, while Polkadot can achieve any form of DApp interoperability.

Someone may say, Polkadot more powerful and flexible. I agree with this, but we should understand that the world is fair, there is no free lunch. A powerful and flexible price is complex and high cost.

In the framework of Cosmos are much simpler than Polkadot. So I can be inferred with certainty, at least in the early stage of Cosmos will be more reliable than Polkadot, and the use of lower cost. So if Cosmos meet the demand, you should choose it.

If the business needs through beyond the encryption certificate category, you can choose Substrate. In front of a branch, the development of enterprises is the block chain applications or development alliance chain should choose what? I think you should choose Substrate.

Why not choose Hyperlegder Fabric or Ethernet square? Because the technology platform business to promote competition, but destined to mainstream open platform. As for Ethernet Fang Development Alliance chain, I think the lack of flexibility.

The business is usually very complex, high performance and manageability are required, and often requires rapid iteration. Substrate is a block chain framework complete, highly modular and can be customized. Rust language focuses on security and performance, but also very suitable for the development of key business system.

Twenty, Rust language

 Long words said through Polkadot architecture (below)

Do not open around the Polkadot/Substrate development, the problem is the Rust language. In my more than 20 years of development, encountered very few programmers to quickly master the new language. But the vast majority of programmers, including myself, to master a language, familiar with the standard library and development framework, the need for a long time.

So learning a new language, for me, is a hard decision. In recent years, the emergence of a lot of development language, the Rust language with a steep learning curve is known. In the end it is worthwhile to spend a lot of time to learn Rust language? As a Rust language for beginners, I talk about my own views.

The first is the Rust language is great, but has not been popular. This is not my personal opinion. A survey in 2019 Stack Overflow, according to popularity rankings, Rust only in the twenty-first row, the picture on the left shows only the top 16, so can not see Rust.

In addition to the Tiobe programming language index ranking, Rust is currently ranked thirty-fourth. Look at the right side of the map, in the Stack Overflow survey most programmers favorite development language list, Rust ranked first. And this is the Rust for four consecutive years ranked first, taking into account the Rust1.0 version 2015 was released, it can be said that the Rust official debut, has been the most popular language programmers.

But you know, a programming language, the pursuit of high performance, and easy to let developers, usually can’t have. For example, Java and Python programmers do not need to consider the memory management, of course, reduce the burden of learning and development, but the system has to deal with garbage collection, performance problems.

On the other hand, c/c++ requires the programmer to manage its own memory, can achieve the best performance, but the premise is to put the program to write, increasing the difficulty of the development. But Rust seems to have both fish and bear’s paw, which achieves the same performance with the c/c++ level, but also by the programmers love.

The second view is that the Rust language suitable for senior programmer development platform project. Rust language attaches great importance to security and performance, it tries to pass the language specification, or compiler, to guide programmers to write efficient code security. Familiar with the use of Rust, can naturally develop high performance and high reliability, it is called the Rust road.

Rust way to achieve the purpose that usually has one of the best ways, Rust tries to guide or force you adopt the best way at the language level. If not in accordance with the Rust encoding of the road, it will let you even pass compiler. Unlike the Javascript language, there are always a lot of choices, you can according to their own habits, how can write.

Of course, the quality of the code may be uneven in quality poor maintainability as well, and. Learn and master Rust, need to understand some important programming concepts, such as the ownership of the object. Without a solid development experience, it is difficult to grasp. This is the reason we think that the Rust language learning curve steep.

If not the development of performance and safety requirements of high level platform project, Rust is overkill. Because of the performance and security benefits, can not offset by the cost of the new development of language.

If you want to develop a platform level system or key business system, Rust is worth considering. In addition to learn Rust language can drive their own understanding of memory, threads, asynchronous, closure, function and other advanced development concepts, of great benefit to the development of ability.

It is a summary, if you have some experience in the development of the system in the future may or may not be interested in the development platform, including block chain development, then the Rust language is worth your time to learn.

 Long words said through Polkadot architecture (below)

I use Russell’s words as the share of ending notes diversity is essential to happiness. To truly understand and appreciate Polkadot and Cosmos design concept, is not the maximum doctrine, do not think the goal of Polkadot is to replace the etheric fang.

At least the etheric Fang foundation and the Parity companies do not think so. Parity company is one of the most important pillar of the etheric Fang ecology, they are also actively involved in the development of Serenity.

Earlier, the etheric Fang foundation to Parity company to pay $5 million, which is about Parity years Ethernet square thanks, also funded they continue to develop software maintenance workshop Ethernet node. I have a bit surprising divity, at least I can understand why they think so.

But now the etheric Fang ecology, begin to appear the etheric religion is won’t listen to reason. Open is the foundation of the etheric vision Fang, Fang Ethernet has led us to see the possibility to the center of the value of the internet. So I think the Ethernet square, but against the other block chain, is a contradiction.

 Long words said through Polkadot architecture (below)

On the front, demand of people to the center of the application are diverse. Serenity, Polkadot, Cosmos and EOS, DApp and other public platform chain, do choose different design, or a different compromise. They will be very suitable for certain needs, but not applicable to other needs.

The interconnection is represent the general trend any one if you choose, the ecological development will be isolated, block chain Internet generates huge network effect by extrusion, was eventually eliminated. Therefore, we can expect that the future will block the chain more diversity, All flowers bloom together., hope to the center of the block chain and application become the source of happiness.

Bitcoin will reach $4000

At the bottom? This problem has been plagued by encrypted currency investors for weeks and months. According to popular analyst Moon Overlord, he is known for his smart statement on the long cycle of BTC, which may have hit bottom. He looks at historical trends, suggesting that after the surrender incident, BTC began trading on a slightly upward trend. In 2012, the upward trend was 15% and 11% in 2015. Bitcoin currently holds an upward trend of 11 degrees, just like in 2015, which led the overlord to conclude that BTC is now in a “clear accumulation period”.

He further outlined his conclusion:

The absolute minimum price that BTC can reach now is now about $4000 (even though it is unlikely at the moment) and there will be a few months before it will leave the price level forever.

Overlord commented that bitcoin is currently higher than its long-term parabolic and logarithmic trend line, which has been supported because it becomes mobile and tradable.

Overlord is not the only analyst who regards $4000 as the key level of BTC. As the world news of ether reported yesterday, Chris Burniske, the partner of Placeholder (Ventures), the author of Cryptoassets, recently said that the return of bitcoin to the $4000 from the collapse of Tether / Bitfinex was not a bad sign. In fact, Burniske explains.

David Puell, partner of Adaptive Capital, also expressed similar views. In the recent analysis of chart Tone Vays channel, Puell pointed out that although he expected a rise of US $4000, a strong rebound in this level will confirm that his guess is the bottom line.

Translation: Kun plus

Source: ethereumworldnews

How to judge the market trend of the use of tangent technology?

Introduction

No one doesn’t know the basic efficacy of the drug before they feel free to try new drugs, no one in a simple look at books after learning to swim to swim in the river. But in the field of investment, a lot of people without any preparation, dare into the cruel market.

In the field of digital currency encryption, we found in daily communication with many individual investors, investors love methods use technical analysis to predict the future trend of digital encryption currency market, but the real system of learning technology analysis of investors are very few, but the real through technical analysis methods of individual investors did not profit many.

Strictly speaking, technical analysis is not a science, but generations of market investors according to their own trading practice summing up and get the rule of thumb. Technical analysis does not aim to predict the market, but investors must according to the current market conditions for the corresponding action essentials and disciplinary action. As a kind of technical analysis most of the time and prediction of discipline, has nothing to do, so investors in the technical analysis will find that the profit taking and continuous small losses are common. But some investors are unable to bear the losses, so continue to break the discipline, but caused a greater loss. This phenomenon is very common in the individual investors.

In order to better serve the users of OK, we set up “the market analysis report”, in the system of technical analysis about some professional knowledge, but also on the future market conditions do basic analysis.

A technical analysis of entry – tangent article

In this method the research on technology market analysis, the trend is the core concept of absolute. Many analysts use tools such as support and resistance lines, lines, lines and the trend of price formation, its sole purpose is to assist the analyst predicts market trends.

Generally speaking, we have a series of provisions for the rising trend of rising in turn peak or trough; the downward trend for a series of provisions decreased the peak or trough; the lateral extension of the trend is defined as a series of a transverse stretching peak or trough. According to Dow Theory, the trend can be divided into three categories: major trends, trends and trend of secondary short. We can use the sea to describe these three trends: the main trend (also called trend) as the tide, the minor trend (or the trend) is the tidal waves, and short-term trend is suffused with a ripple on the waves. It should be emphasized that the division of the trend of the duration for statistical and empirical, for different markets and different subject matter, the trend of different duration.

As shown in Figure 1, bitcoin, bitcoin in a 4 year cycle in the market as a symbol, each cycle contains a rising trend and the trend of decline, rising trend lasts for 1 years -1.5 years, duration decreased trend was about 2 -3 years about. In each big trend, including the duration of about sub-trend months, short and small trend is usually a few weeks or a few days, is a short-term fluctuations. Starting from the perspective of experience, a brief trend may be affected by the manipulation of human factors in a certain extent, while the secondary trend and the main trend is not easy to be manipulated.

 How to judge the market trend of the use of tangent technology?

Figure 1. schematic diagram of three cycles of bitcoin

Support line and stop line

Support and resistance are the two cornerstones of the field of technical analysis. In the chart, support line and line blocking means dominant trend at least may be a short pause.

L support line: the market fell to a price (near the trough, also known to rebound, low price) ceased to fall, there may even rebound. This (temporarily) stop the market continued to decline in the price level for the support line.

L blocking line: the market rose to a price (near the peak, also known as the price fell by up to the point), prices will stop rising or falling. This plays a (temporary) stop price continue to rise in the price level for the stop line.

In general, the support line means that a large number of (potential or actual) buying enough to curb price decline in a certain period of time, stop line means that (actual or potential) selling volume sufficient to meet the needs of all buying, so as to prevent the further rise in price in a certain period of time.

So far, we put the “support” defined as a “low barrier” is defined as a previous high. In fact, the situation is not always so: as long as the support line or stop line is large enough to break the price change, they will swap the role, in other words, blocking the line into the support line and support line into a stop line.

In order to understand the trend of complete theory, we must grasp the support and resistance of the two concepts. In the market trend, when the support line market test the previous stages or stop line, this trend is in the crucial moment: such as the upward trend to continue, so each successive lows (support) must be higher than previous lows (support), each one after another on the high (stop line) must also be higher than a previous high (stop line). Once in the upward trend in the market can not cross the previous support line, or in the downward trend in the market can not be a stop below the previous line, it means that the current trend is about to change. The market in these tentative support line and barrier line in the process, it will form various forms of price.

Price form is divided into reversal pattern and continuous form reversal patterns include head and shoulders type, three top and double top, continuous forms include triangle, flag type, wedge type etc.. Limited to the length of this article, here we give only a list of “head and shoulders” do, the rest forms in the future in the face of concrete examples will do a detailed explanation.

Case: ETH “and a” reversal pattern

Shown in Figure 2 is 2018 years and 4 months to 7 months the price of ETH daily chart. The upward trend in the current round of ETH starting from 4 at the beginning of the month. In figure A, rising trend as in the past, no signs of reversal. Trading volume rose to a new height and the corresponding expansion in the price adjustment in the normal; B point decline in trading volume decreased, also in line with the conventional; but to the point C, the investment in the alert may notice when this trend break at A block level reached C. The trading volume trading volume was rising when compared to has been reduced, though the change itself has no significance, but investors should light up a yellow warning light in my mind. Then the price dropped to D, this round down low (point D) lower than the previous high of A. We said above, the upward trend, the high point of the previous line stop once crossing after the subsequent market adjustment in the supporting role, but the decline was significantly lower than that of the blocking line of point A, indicating an upward trend is likely to reverse; then, the market once again rushed to E. We know that if the rise to sustainable development, each round of new highs must exceed the previous round on the high point E barrier line below C barrier line, meet the general conditions required – a new downtrend in the peak decline.

From the above three signals (C trading volume decreased, breaking down the barrier A line, C line up unable to break through the barrier) we can be sure of one point: the rising trend is likely to reverse, at least into the lateral extension of the trend. Smart investors should be in the E position after some flat rolling long positions, but it is insufficient to sell short operation. Want to know whether the market reversed a downward trend, there is the need for new indicators to confirm that this is the trend line.

 How to judge the market trend of the use of tangent technology?

Head shoulder figure 2.2018 years April -6 month ETH “”

The trend line and sector principle

The trend line is one of the basic tools in our technical analysis for the most convenient and valuable. The trend line is a straight line performance of the market price trends. The main points for the rising trend line and downward trend line.

L trend line: refers to the upward trend, rising by two in the process of the formation of the price of the lowest point into a line.

L: the downward trend line is in a downward trend, a decline from two in the process of the formation of the highest price points into a straight line.

 How to judge the market trend of the use of tangent technology?

Figure 3 confirms the trend line

In the confirmation of the trend line, with the upward trend line for example, as shown in Figure 3, we require not only the trend line through the first two wave trough (Figure 1,3), also called from 3 a.m. to 2 points through the trend line of the price level, so as to confirm the validity of the trend line. Of course, in the general case we only require the market from 3 points to 2 points between the price change point 3 retracement of 50%, or up to 2 points close to the price level, will be able to confirm the validity of the trend line. As long as the third pass, and the trend is still in accordance with the established direction for further development, the trend line will come in handy. The trend line can not only determine the limit position in the market price adjustment stage, the more important is that it can show changes in the trend of the original circumstances:

(1) support or block boundary: the upward trend, the decline of adjustment is inevitable, but it often touches or very close to the corresponding trend line. Because the dealer is to rise by buying down, so the rising trend line support boundary in the market below, can be used to buy area, while the trend decline in line can be used as barrier zone, to sell a.

(2) early warning signal: once the trend line is the market price breakthrough, also changed the trend of signal, means that investors must settle the original trend in the direction of position.

(3) the trend line of roles: the rising trend line (support) once the decisive break down, evolves into the stop line; the downward trend line (stop line) once was a decisive breakthrough, it evolved into a support line. [1]

We are now in terms of sector principle, this is another use of the trend line. As shown below, when the trend line is broken, the price fell initially, and then rebounded again to the 1 line below, but not to cross the 1 line. At this point we can make a new trend line (line 2); then the 2 line break down, then the price again rebounded, to test 2 line failed, so we get the third trend line (line 3); the third trend line again if is broken, it often means the price will be dropped.

As can be seen by the original support line after the break into a barrier line diagram in turn become three straight flat shaped like a fan, which is named after the fan principle. Among them, the third trend line break is a trend reversal signal.

 How to judge the market trend of the use of tangent technology?

Figure 4 confirms the trend line

Case: application of principle in the EOS sector

图5是EOS在2019年7月的3h线走势图,当市场达到B点时,我们做出第一条趋势线(图中线1);当市场到达图中的N点时,由于N点的价格低于M点和B点之间价格变化回撤的50%,所以我们可以判断图中的线1是有效的上升趋势线;此时投资者至少可以在下一个低点—C点的前后买入EOS;当EOS的市场价格到达D点时,击穿了线1并跌至E点;此时,当市场价格恢复到波峰点F时,判断线1已经成了目前市场价格的阻挡线,为此我们过A点和E点作出线2;同样地,我们可以通过对I点位置的价格判断,过A点和G点作出线3; 当市场在J点击穿线3时,投资者就应该卖出EOS离场;随后正如我们判断的那样,EOS出现了暴跌。

 How to judge the market trend of the use of tangent technology?

Figure EOS July 52018 3H jiagezoushitu

Pipe line

The pipeline is also known as the return line is, on the other hand the application trend line technology. Pipe line is relatively simple. The following figure, the upward trend, we first draw the basic trend of low along the line, and then from the first significant peak (point 2) starting with a dotted line, leads to the parallel line. Two lines are right above the stretch, constitute a pipeline. If the next round of rising back after arrived in the pipeline (point 4), then the pipeline was established in general; if the exhumation has fallen back to the original trend line (point 5), then the pipeline basically confirmed. In a downward trend, and the rising trend is similar, but in the opposite direction.

 How to judge the market trend of the use of tangent technology?

Figure 6 pipe line method

This pipeline has advantages: the basic trend line is a new long positions and basis lines used for short-term positions to profit, we can use the pipeline to establish and trend in the opposite direction of short positions (although this inverse trend to do trading strategies may lead to dangerous) lines have not been touched. In addition the longer test success more, then it is more important and reliable.

In addition, we can also use pipeline technology to identify decreased signal, this is the price to arrive the pipeline. In Figure 6, the price to reach the top of the pipe (5 points), this is the trend to change the warning display another line (basic upward trend line) is the possibility of a breakthrough increase.

The pipeline also has significance in both estimates, once the price has occurred on the pipeline line break, prices will usually reach and breakthrough direction along the channel width equal to the distance. Therefore, we can according to the width of the pipeline, pipeline from the touchline breakthrough point, simply follow the direction of projection break out, the price target.

Case: application of pipeline in BCH

 How to judge the market trend of the use of tangent technology?                                                                  Figure BCH May 72018 to November daily chart

Figure 7 is BCH in 2018 years 5 months to 11 months BCH daily, through the lines we can see that in the 8 at the end of the month, the market has not arrived at the pipeline in 6 months, indicating the original trend may be coming to an end, the market subsequently transferred to the next trend in 7 months, which showed a decline trend of BCH in slow.

Market prediction

In this section, we will use the literature to the technical analysis tool to determine the future trend of digital currency market. The market forecast is mainly concentrated in the BTC, ETH and EOS in three main currencies in the short-term trend of [2]. The volatility of the digital currency market is too high, so in the short term to use the daily chart analysis will miss important signal; and the digital money market is the 24h transaction, select 1H within K line graph will contain many invalid information; therefore, in the choice of K map, this paper recommends that investors choose 4h or 3H chart analysis.

1.BTC

Figure 9 is 2019 year 4 month ETH 4h chart. BTC showed a “expanded form” (also known as the “horn”). This pattern belongs to the continuous form, is rare in the market. In the expanded form, the gradual separation of two lines, showing the expansion of triangles. In the expanded form, trading volume with price shocks increasingly enlarged and increased. This shows that the market is out of control, become very emotional. Because the form on behalf of the public participation in trading activities more active, so the market occurred in the top position, it is generally bearish, as technology tools to judge it, BTC in the 29 day break edges (F point). Due to the high horn exposure is not large, that trade shock relatively small, so in the short term BTC if the price drop, it is generally slightly, unless there is a new signal to correct our judgment.

 How to judge the market trend of the use of tangent technology?

Figure BTC 4H chart since April 82019

2.ETH

Figure 9 is a April 2019 ETH 4h chart. ETH formed a “top three” reversal pattern in the mid to late 4, in particular, in the figure ETH A, C D, the three peak point price roughly at the same level. In three the top, before the two peaks of the ETH trading volume gradually reduced, while in break down when will suddenly increase; from the figure we can see, from April 19th to 24, ETH trading volume gradually reduced, while the 26 day market ushered in the crash, trading volume increases. At present, ETH at the F point breakthrough by B, E two trough formed neckline (support), three top form has been completed, indicating that ETH market trend has been reversed in the short term, ETH is in a downward trend or transversely extending trend. In April 29th, the figure of the G-spot, ETH the counterattack phenomenon, has been supported by the neckline line into a blocking line, so in ETH at a price of 29 did not cross the neckline, then turned down, in the short term, the original price of ETH will become the neckline on the stop line, if the breakthrough neckline indicates that there may be a new trend.

 How to judge the market trend of the use of tangent technology?

Figure ETH 4H chart since April 92019

3.EOS

Figure 10 is a April 2019 ETH 4h chart. We use the principle of sector analysis found the current EOS market price has exceeded second AC line trend line, but not a breakthrough AD composed of third trend lines. In the future, if EOS prices continue dropping and over third trend lines, so that the trend of EOS may be an important reversal (at least into line extending trend).

 How to judge the market trend of the use of tangent technology?

Figure 10 2019 4 EOS 4H month K map

[1] effectively break the general use of 3% principles, but given the high risk of the digital currency market, we recommend the use of 5% principles, namely, jewelry price crosses the trend line range of at least 1 or 2%, it can be judged as effective breakthrough.

[2] if the readers want to know the future trend of other currencies, can contact the OK staff, we will do the analysis in the next report.

You Fang enough random Ethernet private key private key, hackers stealing coins

Odaily produced the daily planet

Author Qin Xiaofeng |

| editor Lu Xiaoming

 You Fang enough random Ethernet private key private key, hackers stealing coins

(picture from cryptonomist)

According to the security evaluators message, independent security assessment agency (ISE) recently released a new study called Ethercombing, this research mainly aims at the safety of Ethernet private key square wallet.

ISE found that there are currently 732 private key is not high because of randomness in the etheric square block chain, there is the risk of theft. In addition, since the beginning of last year, a “Blockchainbandit” hacker organization through the low security of the private key is stolen money, once reached 37926 ETH ($54 million at the time). Until today, the organization has yet to stop.

The private key is not random

Ethernet address and public key generation Workshop on private key, the public key and private key can generate the address, you can take the corresponding address above the Ethernet (ETH).

While the private key is essentially a random number, an array consisting of 32 byte, 1 byte is equal to 8 bits of a binary only two values: 0 or 1. So the private key is the total number of nearly 2^ (8*32) =2^256, the probability of crack is 1/2^256 private key.

ISE researcher Adrian Bednarek said that although the probability still exists in theory, but in fact you want to forcibly break the private key is impossible. Even if we use the computing resources that we can produce 100 trillion keys per second, it would take about a few years time, actually we have no such computing resources.

However, the ISE was found in the experiment, because some of the private key generation wallet software encoding errors, resulting in random generated private key is not high, easy to computer (brute force enumeration of all possibilities).

ISE, for example, was a bit of a 256 private key should be:

  • 0x47579DA2BEA463533DBFAD6FCF8E90876C2FE9760DC1162ACC4059EE37BDDB5C

Because the code integrity problems, the private key is truncated to 32 bits in the output when the results are as follows:

  • 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000037BDDB5C

For computers, break 32 bit private key difficulty is far below the crack a 256 bit private key difficulty.

In addition to the wallet encoding error, memory reference, memory damage, random device error, random seed reuse, object confusion, stack damage, input confusion, entropy error, heap corruption or unchecked precompiled encoding error may lead to inadequate safety and reducing the random key.

The ISE researchers found that in the experiment, the etheric square block chain had a total of 732 random key is not strong, there is the risk of leakage current; these private key is still in the active state, and is associated with a chain of 49060 transactions.

The private key is low security in order to test the ISE researchers found, to which an address into the $1 ETH, after a few seconds the result will be transferred to Token.

ISE tracking, Token eventually went to a “Blockchainbandit” hacker organization wallet. The organization began to steal some weaker security of the private key from the 1 year 2018 month, the balance of the peak of the address balance reached 37926 ETH, the value of 5400 million dollars at that time. Until today, the organization has yet to stop.

The etheric Fang itself is no problem

The private key problems, mean square block chain Ethernet technology itself loopholes? The etheric Fang researcher Hu Jingyu to the Odaily Daily Planet said, the private key low security at present, the main problem is the wallet, and the etheric Fang itself Never mind. Chen Changwu also believes that the core developers workshop Ethernet Ethernet square algorithm and no problem itself.

Chen Changwu added, in addition to the random number, the signature process in the use of the K value will also affect the security of the private key. “Use a secret value of K will produce the signature process, the BTC and ETH are produced by RFC6979 this value, the K value must be unique and random. But some of the cryptographic algorithms programming programmers are not familiar with may ignore these details, resulting in leakage of private key.”

At the end of this report, ISE also to the developers and users are given suggestions:

For developers:

  • The use of relatively well-known platform specific library or module generates a random number;

  • Pseudo random number generator using encryption security;

  • Audit the source code and the generated code is compiled, with randomly generated verification key will not be truncated;

  • The use of multiple sources of entropy;

  • The use of AMD / Intel provides NIST compatible hardware random number generation command (RDRAND / RDSEED) *

  • Check the encrypted random number generation NIST / FIPS Guide

  • Review and use the NIST statistical test suite (NIST SP 800-22)

To use the wallet users:

  • Do not use may have access to the private key of untrusted software;

  • The private key is completely random, so the use of software and hardware to generate a private key trusted wallet;

  • Don’t produce a password based key, because it is easy to be cracked.

Previously, the private key was always considered impregnable, but from the current situation, the strong fortress is from internal collapse.

In addition, according to the IBM Research Center Director Arvind Krishna said, a quantum computer can be divided into minute break now security technology to protect the most powerful encryption of sensitive data, including the private key.

Trend: digital assets are redefining the financial market

 Trend: digital assets are redefining the financial market

In 2018, ICO and chaos caused by the lack of supervision of the digital currency fell under the condition that the asset market is almost no doubt encryption on the impact of the wave.

In 2019, digital currency to start a round of market rebound, while the security token is the core of the current rally. At the same time, we also see some encouraging phenomenon, basic assets are digitized gradually improved, to further strengthen the supervision, the traditional agencies are running for admission……

All the signs indicate that the digital asset is accelerating the re definition of the financial market, it can be said that 2019 will be a transition to digital asset market regulated a year.

Based on digital assets gradually improve

ICOs and led investors to question the encryption currency there are two main factors, one is the lack of supervision on the financing of this new method, another factor is the poor quality of assets investment. In order to overcome this ingrained problem, the trend is to known and recognized assets, such as securities marker, and increase the efficiency and safety of potential distributed ledger technology.

At present, the market infrastructure still needs to overcome the psychological and technical barriers, in order to stimulate the interest of institutional investors. The existing market infrastructure lack of trust has three main reasons: lack of preparation, lack of market main body of the market and investor education related factors.

The market infrastructure and market lack of preparation can be achieved by the finite integration between traditional monetary and digital assets, current digital assets of low liquidity and transparency and the lack of enterprise storage solutions to enable investors to assume their own definition of assets, or have to rely on low volume inexperienced keeper. Market participants lack of education is characterized by the recent development of Distributed Accounting, and the existing market participants do not have enough time to adopt the technology.

Now, digital asset infrastructure development has been showing signs of being perfect. In order to support the existing digital assets, the need for a strong and reliable infrastructure for end users, that asset allocation diversification of individual and institutional investors to provide a seamless experience. Since the beginning of 2019, the world’s leading financial exchanges have announced some projects aimed at the development of digital asset trading. With different degree of progress, all the major players are at least announced with technical experts and companies to develop more in-depth knowledge in this breakthrough technology progress.

In addition, it is necessary to obtain approval of all regulatory jurisdictions, and accept all existing industry participants the broader market. The development of a more transparent regulatory framework more conducive to digital currency. From a regulatory perspective, you can now see a big shift to digital assets. But in the current situation, it is impossible to achieve in 2020. This is considered to be the first ruling Swiss lawmakers will soon vote on such legislation. However, even if successful, the ruling will come into effect on January 1, 2020.

Recently, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) issued “the framework of investment contract analysis of digital assets, in order to further clarify the digital encryption currency and other assets should be classified as” securities “view. SEC said in a press release, this document is intended to provide a framework for the analysis of the characteristics of digital assets of the investment contract, so as to determine whether the federal securities laws. In addition, SEC corporate finance department issued a formal response to a request for exemption, that will not recommend SEC for those who are not in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws, the registration of digital asset sale to take coercive measures.

Bitcoin Finance

According to Adamant Capital report, bitcoin financial level in the past few years has been on the rise.

In 2017, focus on bitcoin derivatives clearing platform Ledgerx has been approved by the CFTC for the bitcoin exchange option first completely under the supervision of the federal. This also means that, LedgerX became the first to obtain SEF (trade enforcement agency) and DCO (derivatives clearing agency) digital currency platform. In April this year, LedgerX has been to the United States regulatory agencies to apply for the specified contract market (Designated Contract Market) license. The company plans on the new platform called Omni to its retail customers and to provide services bitcoin trading futures.

In December 2017, CBOE launched bitcoin futures products.

2018 is the Goldman investment encryption assets hosting solutions a year BitGo and TD Ameritrade called the bitcoin futures platform ErisX.

In 2019, digital fidelity hosting, the NASDAQ bitcoin futures and Northern Trust encryption solutions are expected to launch asset custody.

The report also pointed out that the Bitwise estimation of bitcoin bitcoin stock futures accounted for more than the total trading volume of 30%, further evidence of Genesis Capital $1 billion 100 million in cash and loans to borrow money as a financial asset of digital encryption.

The report said: “bitcoin’s political neutrality, incomparable security, global liquidity and predictable financial policy is obviously improved.” “With the bitcoin mature, we expect it will break the vertical flow of $100 trillion worth of storage investment, become the world’s use of the number of gold and reserve assets.”

In February this year, the United States two pension funds into digital monetary fund new digital Asset Management Co Morgan Creek Digital’s investors, public pension funds began to enter the field of digital currency.

The traditional company running admission

The exchange between the existing and new market participants of the competition will be the key to the future of digital asset provider.

On the one hand, the existing market leaders are most likely to have the largest market share. Relying on the existing trusted customers, including the largest Institutional Firms, has established the brand image and extended capacity verification, only need to deal with changes in technology market for new digital assets. As they are now and in the future in accordance with regulatory requirements, the exchange will set the standard for security token listing, as they have already done, which will enhance the confidence of investors, and the widespread market acceptance.

On the other hand, the new market participants are to enter the field of disruptive technology and greater flexibility to adapt to changing market environment. However, even with more effective technology, new participants are also facing structural problems into the industry. First of all, in most countries / regions need to exchange and broker – dealer licensing and other regulatory conditions. In addition, the distribution and linkage with financial institutions still lack, existence, acceptance and confidence cannot obtain the broader market.

The traditional market participants have been and will continue to quickly enter the field of digital assets.

In 2018, the Singapore Exchange (SGX) and the monetary authority of Singapore (MAS) announced Anquan and technology companies, the accounting giant DDT and Nasdaq development cooperation, delivery and payment (DvP) function, in order to block the chain platform on different settlement of digital assets.

By the end of 2018, the New York stock exchange parent company of American Intercontinental Exchange set up digital asset trading platform – Bakkt platform announced the completion of the first round of financing, raising $182 million 500 thousand. Beihang University professor Cai Weide issued a document called Bakkt was established on behalf of the entire American financial industry has been fully accepted digital tokens of market, let all over the United States to invest in digital tokens of legal compliance.

In March 2019, Deutsche Brse group (Deutsche Borse Group), the Swiss state telecommunications and ICT company, Swiss Telecom (Swisscom) and financial technology company Sygnum jointly build a compliance infrastructure based on digital asset market.

The Swiss Stock Exchange announced the day before SIX, digital assets, its infrastructure is establishing a set of transactions, settlement and custody in one. SIX exchange by the Swiss financial market supervisory authority (FINMA) and the Swiss central bank supervision, said the planned “digital asset ecosystem” — SIX Digital Exchange (SDX) will be subject to the same regulatory standards. This will be the world’s first to provide end-to-end digital asset trading, settlement and custody services market infrastructure. The service will provide a safe environment for the issuance and trading of digital assets, promote existing securities and non bank assets that cannot be traded before tokenization, assets can be traded. The service will be launched in mid 2019.

2019 years 4 months, according to Bloomberg, if the monetary authority of Singapore (SMA) successfully approved it. Headquartered in Singapore, Liquidity Offset Network, or 7 2019 will be the first in years to build the world’s first derivatives clearing password. However, to become the first is not easy. Its success largely depends on two factors: the increase of encryption derivatives trading and ability to reduce transaction costs.

The new company began to gain traction in the field of security tokens, such as Coinbase Prime to create an institutional trading platform or t-Zero, which is a security token products provide a regulated platform.

What is suitable for digital assets

In theory, all categories of existing assets can be put into the digital certificate “token”. From the listed and unlisted stocks, bonds, real estate, luxury goods and investment funds, each asset classes have been given symbolic meaning, but not all cases prove that it is an improvement on the existing processes or any increase of a value.

A core standard is only useful for marking assets, these assets can only pass through the block chain. According to the current legislative situation, it will not bring value to the real estate and luxury goods and other tangible assets, because these two categories of assets can still be sold outside the block chain or any other exchange. However, debt, equity and digital categories of intangible assets such as derivatives can benefit from the intelligent management of the entire contract characteristics of the life cycle of assets such as issuing, electronic voting, dividend payments and automatic registration of shareholders.

The following is the potential development of the research results of Finoa in the next 8 years digital asset classes:

 Trend: digital assets are redefining the financial market

Caption: token economy source: https://finoa.io/#research

One obvious trend is that if we will “other financial assets” as intangible assets, including intangible assets is expected to cover most of the trading volume of the market, accounting for more than 95% of the total.

Written in the last:

In summary, digital assets in the financial services industry will show great potential. In order to support its successful development, customers and institutional participants will soon decide to cooperate to issue a new security token. In addition, regulatory approval will be up and running ecosystem spend the most time and cost conditions. 2020 will be a transition period for the development of market infrastructure security token. The motive force of the development will be set up in 2021 and 2022, and then enter the common market acceptance and become more deeply through credit economy.

The reference | Jun

Special statement: block chain industry ICO project investment risk is extremely high; Dragons and fishes jumbled together, all kinds of digital currency false ones, requiring the user to prudent investment. “True” chain is only responsible for the sharing of information, does not constitute any investment advice, users of all investment behavior has nothing to do with the station.

Author: internal chain
Special statement: block chain industry ICO project investment risk is extremely high; Dragons and fishes jumbled together, all kinds of digital currency false ones, requiring the user to prudent investment. “True” chain is only responsible for the sharing of information, does not constitute any investment advice, users of all investment behavior has nothing to do with the station.

Public ecological chain weekly: BI index fell 5% weeks, body will send stable currency PAX

01 Market

Chain tower BI index, by 80 representative encryption currency, in order to reflect the overall performance of encryption currency market.

4 June 26, BI index closed at 872 weeks fell nearly 47, or up to 5.08%. This period (April 20th to April 26th), the Bitfinex and Tether events, market confidence, in the short term is difficult to effectively break.

 Public ecological chain weekly: BI index fell 5% weeks, body will send stable currency PAX

BI index chart

Source: chain tower data platform

The BC index is the chain chain tower, tower think tank launched public chain index, which reflects changes in the value of the field of public chain and market overall prosperity. In this period, the BC index closed at 241 points, the week up 44 points, an increase of 22.34%.

 Public ecological chain weekly: BI index fell 5% weeks, body will send stable currency PAX

BC index chart

Source: chain tower data platform

Progress of 02 chain

The etheric Fang

In April 21st, V God ETH 2 inflation rate is set at Github published proposals, proposed to increase the pledge of returns, the annual rate of inflation will be lower than 2%.

In April 24th, according to CoinDesk news, Societe Generale Securities to the public in the form of scrip issued $112 million worth of square block chain ether bond. The bank used OFH token (debt financing vouchers) to represent a 100 million euro bond, the securities backed by specific assets, but still remain in the issuer’s balance sheet.

19:55 on April 24th, according to the data of PeckShield situation awareness platform shows that the Tether in the etheric Fang network new issuance of 1 $70 million ERC20 USDT.

4 25, ETH 2.0-specs. According to the information on the GitHub display, YAML test vector will not immediately released together with the new v0.6.0, which will be released next week. 6 weeks before the v0.5 release, and run well.

In April 25th, according to Unitimes reports, V God proposed the use of higher Staking Ethernet Fang reward index in the deployment of PoS, V and God’s proposal lists a number of Staking ETH based on the expected rate of return, the corresponding (yield) of the maximum value is also different. The proposal received after the release of Github and Reddit on the response are mostly positive.

4 the morning of 26 August 00 32, according to the data of PeckShield situation awareness platform shows that the Tether in the etheric Fang network new issuance of 1 $100 million USDT. Until now, this month Tether additional five ERC20 USDT in the etheric Fang on the network, the total issuance has reached 400010000.

In April 26th, the developer announced the etheric Fang, for the audit of the ProgPoW code change funds have been approved.

EOS

4 month 23 days, according to MEET.ONE news, EOS Authority re submit the REX deployment step two update eosio.token BP signed a contract. EOS Authority launched in April 16th to update the eosio.token contract proposal (REX deployment step second) in 18, received 15 votes in favor of valid votes, but due to lack of eosio.token RAM, the contract failed to update.

In April 24th, according to the gravity observation reports, super node EOS New York proposed intelligent EOS token EOS core development contracts and financial proposal. The proposal of the thought that provides a system structured, extensible, allowing developers to use DApp eosio.token system deployment contract token. It will also be on a single private key of the trust to the 15/21 node trust.

In April 24th, once again launched by EOS Authority in 23, EOS in the main network deployment of REX second step “update eosio.token contract” by BP signed by. The successful deployment of REX requires 3 steps: the first step is to create a eosio.rex account (through); the second step is to update the eosio.token contract (through); the third step is the completion of the first two steps after loading REX (Intelligent contract also needs BP sign); in the 3 step at the end of the main EOS online REX deployment will be completed.

In April 26th, according to IMEOS reports, blockone-devops in the morning at GitHub EOSIO and v1.7.3 v1.6.5 submitted updated version, two version contains stability and other repair.

Noumenon

In April 23rd, the body of the Renaissance incentive plan third weeks awarding, cloud dragon, block war, bird, Enhanced, 2048 pixel burst cool play, Fishing Man was the first prize of $20000.

In April 25th, the body and by the Alibaba public fund and the SEE fund will invest China environmental NGO (Non-Governmental Organization) famous Shanghai youth Wyatt launched cooperation, the two sides will focus on “green finance” in the field, the public construction of trusted chain based on ontology, green financial environment information solutions.

In April 26th, Sesameseed (the TRON community is joining Ontology maximum node) ecosystem as a new node. Sesameseed owns TronWallet, TronWatch Market and Seedit Ontology will turn to the platform to provide services.

In April 27th, PAX announced a stable currency tokens to the ontology ontology block chain platform will be issued.

wave field

In April 24th, according to Sun Yuchen micro-blog, Liverpool football club and the wave field of TRON cooperation. 5 April 25th 09, the official Tether TRON network in the new issuance of 1 $49 million 900 thousand TRC20 USDT. Since March, Tether announced the wave field foundation, up to now has been to the Tether wave field network issued a total of 99901010 pieces of TRC20 USDT.

Currency security chain in April 21st, according to ambcrypto reports, Red Pulse Phoenix [PHX] and Atomic Wallet will migrate to the money chain.

In April 23rd, the company announced that ERC20 BNB coin has been successfully switched to currency security chain, has become the primary token BEP2 BNB. At the same time, an DEX to the center of the currency trading platform was officially launched in the first trading on, users will be in an DEX currency transaction, the specific date will be announced soon. Users can now access the web browser security chain, coin purse, open node data, and access to API.

In April 23rd, Spend said on twitter that plans to launch the SPND currency security chain, and will appear in an DEX currency. In addition, hold Spend Visa credit card users, the use of BNB in May 1st to pay will get 1% discount.

In April 25th, the wallet encryption hardware company Ledger announced that users can now use Ledger devices in the currency of main chain BNB transactions online using an encryption of assets.

03 public ecological chain

The etheric Fang

By the end of April 26, 2019, a total of 1405 line Ethernet Fang platform DApp, the quiz DApp a total of 628 games, a total of 426 models, DApp market DApp a total of 86 models, social class DApp total of 7, a total of 258 other types of DApp.

In this period, the etheric Fang new on-line platform for a game DApp: nouveau riche cat.

 Public ecological chain weekly: BI index fell 5% weeks, body will send stable currency PAX

 Public ecological chain weekly: BI index fell 5% weeks, body will send stable currency PAX

From April 20, 2019 to April 26, 2019, the hero, IDEX, encryption block chain in the etheric adorable pet shop DApp week forces the top three, 7 day average daily living were 2109, 1058, 706.

EOS

By the end of April 26, 2019, the EOS platform on the line of 431 DApp, the quiz DApp a total of 285 games, a total of 48 DApp, a total of 60 other types of DApp, market DApp a total of 32, a total of 6 social DApp.

4 4 20 April to June 26, EOS platform for new DApp:EOSMAk (both guessing), grapefruit products (electricity supplier).

 Public ecological chain weekly: BI index fell 5% weeks, body will send stable currency PAX

 Public ecological chain weekly: BI index fell 5% weeks, body will send stable currency PAX

From April 20, 2019 to April 26, 2019, Endless Game, EOS DApp, BingoBet in the hash baby week forces the top three, 7 day average daily living were 45332, 31503, 21941.

In this period, a new list of DApp are EOS Global, EOSABC (guessing) (guessing).

wave field

By the end of April 26, 2019, the wave field platform on line 312 DApp, the quiz DApp a total of 231 games, a total of 36 DApp, a total of 33 other types of DApp, market DApp a total of 11, a total of 1 social DApp.

From April 20th to April 26th, the wave field platform added 11 DApp, 8 of them are guessing DApp.

 Public ecological chain weekly: BI index fell 5% weeks, body will send stable currency PAX

 Public ecological chain weekly: BI index fell 5% weeks, body will send stable currency PAX

2019 4 20 to 2019 4 26, Crazy Dogs, Live OCDAPP, Gakex Jubo DApp week power list before 3, 3 DApp 7, the average daily activity were 5487, 5382, 4471.

In this period, a new list of two guessing DApp:OCDAPP, BetHash wave field platform.

Noumenon

By the end of April 26, 2019, a total of 26 models on-line ontology on the platform of DApp, the game DApp 10, DApp 9 guessing and other types of DApp 6, DApp 1 class market.

 Public ecological chain weekly: BI index fell 5% weeks, body will send stable currency PAX

 Public ecological chain weekly: BI index fell 5% weeks, body will send stable currency PAX

2019 4 20 to 2019 4 26, HyperDragons Go! A bomb, bomb explosion, cool gunmen mobilization ontology DApp week forces among the top three, 7 day average daily living were 10007, 3406, 3242.

In this period, the body on the platform of a new list of games like DApp: general mobilization, body Gunners legend.