ProgPoW ASIC how to resist? The development team IfDefElse for you to answer

After obtaining some mainstream media attention, the development team of ProgPoW IfDefElse received a lot of arithmetic questions, their answers to some common problems. The original authors agree that this translation report ore horizon.


Q: in the etheric Fang governance, what is your position?

Answer: no position, we feel that many problems should be left to the community to answer, such as whether or when to use ProgPoW. We propose a new algorithm, and willing to answer technical questions related.


Q: ProgPoW come from?

Answer: IfDefElse is a small team analysis and optimization of PoW algorithm. We observed that the ETH community has repeatedly requested the use of a new PoW algorithm, in this algorithm, professional ASIC machine and conventional hardware facilities than up, little advantage. Seeing many algorithms in the ASIC machine before cannot withstand a single blow, it is heartbreaking, each new ASIC machine will make the entire ETH community was plunged into depression.

So in the spring of 2018 in a day, we have to modify Ethash algorithm, to achieve the desired effect of the idea of mining GPU. Preliminary edited the algorithm, we put it in a public forum on GitHub development and fine-tuning.


Q: who were assessed for ProgPoW?

Answer: in the process of a collection of algorithms using feedback, we are lucky enough to receive from the etheric Fang foundation engineer, Fang Ethernet core R & D Engineer, feedback mail NVIDIA engineers and AMD engineers. NVIDIA and AMD have made a positive evaluation of general engineer of the algorithm.

It is worth mentioning that there are two update optimization algorithm is to evaluate the community members mbevand and based on Schemykh.


Q: what reaction AMD?

Answer: AMD’s response to solve the two major concerns:

If you use ProgPoW Ethash algorithm instead of PoW algorithm, ASIC machine manufacturers have no way to do research on the source code and the rapid manufacturing of specialized ASIC machine?

ProgPoW algorithm will let GPU miners dig Ethernet?

An engineer AMD gives an affirmative answer, the theory is to build a new ProgPoW ASIC machine, but it need to have special knowledge of GPU manufacturing background, especially the memory controller technology.

Not only that, they also expressed the cache (local data sharing and AMD chip data on the size of the worry).

They mentioned in the message, regardless of whether the cache is 8KB or 16KB, AMD and NVIDIA had no big difference in performance. But in 32KB and 64KB may have a significant impact on the two kinds of GPU architecture in the Polaris and Vega manufacturers, also there will be no compatibility.

According to their feedback, we put the size of the PROGPOW_CACHE_BYTES is set to 16KB.


Q: what reaction NVIDIA?

Answer: NVIDIA engineers generally agree our method. They say that the algorithm fills the gap between memory access by operation, rather than GPU as noble as the memory controller idle idle in the.

Their main concern is that if the algorithm added too many random operations, finally becomes compute bound, rather than by the storage limit. As a result, by the calculation of limit algorithm to create ASIC machine may gain greater efficiency and gain.

According to their feedback, we tuned the PROGPOW_CNT_CACHE and PROGPOW_CNT_MATH to ensure that the algorithm of GPU is still under the present most of the storage limit.


Q: if ProgPoW is the main loop call module and use the kiss99 () method to select random instruction, then the algorithm design of ASIC machine is not more efficient?

Answer: This is the first time to see the algorithm often some misunderstanding. In fact, the main circuit modules and kiss99 (written) call, is calculated by the CPU and then generate a random process, and then compiled by CPU. GPU is responsible for the implementation of optimized code, and the code has been solved to perform what instruction and use mixed state what problem.

As Alexey said, ProgPoW every 50 blocks a generation of source code. See example generation program:

We will also make further explanation in the standard.


Q: to compile the source code, the miners will need to install AMD or NVIDIA software development kit?

Answer: No. Drive AMD and NVIDIA contained in OpenCL, DirectX and Vulkan compiler. For CUDA, the binary file will be kernel and a small part of the software development kit with distribution.


Q: ProgPoW algorithm based on GPU preference?

Answer: No, the original design of ProgPoW algorithm is as far as possible to ensure fairness. OpenCL and CUDA had no difference in the implementation of 16KB, the size of the cache can run smoothly in these two kinds of architecture.

We avoided only 16 or 24 operations in one structure, whether it is indexed register file AMD, or NVIDIA LOP3, all operations are well supported across generations architecture.

The performance of ProgPoW algorithm in GPU mining work load will also reflect the average performance of the game GPU.


Q: why after a large number of modifications of VBIOS GPU between Ethash and ProgPoW, but the speed difference of more than 2 times slower than expected?

Answer: ProgPoW read each hash memory is twice Ethash, so the expected hash rate was 1/2. We previously reported all the tuning and sample hash rate (see “Results:Hashrate”) is run in normal rate above GPU. In order to reduce the core frequency and a large number of modifications of VBIOS will lead to limited computing machine running the algorithm, rather than by the storage limit.

If the user wants to change to the new algorithm, modify and tuning of VBIOS will need to be re.


Q: can you talk about Ethash ASIC than the GPU machine to mill efficiency two times higher?

The Ethash algorithm only needs to perform 3 components:

High bandwidth memory (for DAG access)

Keccak F1600 engine (for the initial / final hash)

Micro computing core (for inner loop and FNV module)

FPGA data show that the cost of computing power of Keccak is almost negligible. We estimate that in the implementation of the Ethash algorithm, the GPU power is only about 1/2 spent on memory access. The power of Keccak and calculation of the core Ethash ASIC machine is negligible, the power consumption in the main memory access, so improve the mining efficiency in GPU space and two times.

The current Ethash mining hardware quick summary:

 ProgPoW ASIC how to resist? The development team IfDefElse for you to answer In addition to Titan V, all data are from and

The first generation of Ethash ASIC machine, Antminer E3, bit compared with the GPU machine without any efficiency advantages. This is because the DDR3 memory is higher than GPU and its GDDR memory power consumption.

To our knowledge, has not yet released Innosilicon A10 ETHMaster will have better performance in efficiency. Because Innosilicon use of GDDR6 IP technology in the machine series, which will make it the efficiency can reach two times the most efficient mining of GPU RTX 2070.


Q: how practical HBM?

Answer: our initial evaluation algorithm is to use the same memory type with the standard comparison. HBM low power consumption, but the price is expensive, it is not practical. For example, with HBM NVIDIA Titan V A10 ETHMaster than the efficiency, only a little less, but the cost of $3000, was not practical.

With HBM AMD Vega card price is reasonable, but for some reason it is only up to 175 KH/s/W. What do we limit the efficiency of Vega is still uncertain, increasing the access size can significantly improve the situation (the bandwidth utilization rate increased from 61% to 75%, see “Results:Hashrate”) but the power consumption of Vega cards are still too high. We look forward to the newly announced AMD Radeon VII graphics card can double the bandwidth is significantly improved in efficiency.

We estimate the power of HBM is about half of GDDR6, if the manufacturing of expensive Ethash ASIC machine using HBM, the calculated stress will exceed 1 MH/s/W, the efficiency is about 4 times of conventional GPU on the market.


Q: ProgPoW ASIC can have high efficiency?

Answer: ProgPoW is designed to significantly reduce the efficiency gain of dedicated ASIC machine. The implementation of the algorithm must satisfy the following components:

High bandwidth memory (for DAG access)

Keccak F800 engine (for the initial / final hash)

Large register files (for mixed state)

High throughput SIMD whole mathematics (for random operations)

High throughput SIMD cache (for random access cache)

Keccak capacity becomes small, so it has on the GPU power consumption is negligible. In this way, ASIC mills at lower power consumption advantages will cease to exist.

In order to perform random sequence, ProgPoW ASIC and GPU mills need to calculate the core implementation on very similar things. Register access, all SIMD math and cache access needs to be similar to the GPU operating environment.

Yes, ProgPoW ASIC ISA can accurately design, to match the ProgPoW algorithm, such as delete, increase the explicit merge (floating-point operations). However, this specialization will only provide a small amount of marginal benefit, rather than the magnitude of the income increase.

Optimistic, we assume that a well-designed ProPoW ASIC ISA can remove the 1/4 core computing power. Because the GPU kernel in the implementation of the ProPoW is much more active, we estimate the memory interface consumes about GPU power 1/3. Then use the GDDR Prop PoW ASIC and its relative power consumption is:

1/3 (memory) * 1 + 2/3 (calculated) * 3/4 = 5/6

The advantage of 1.2 times

If you use HBM, relative power ProgPoW ASIC machine is:

1/3 (memory) * 1/2 + 2/3 * 3/4 = 2/3 (Computing)

The advantage of 1.5 times


Q: can run on ProgPoW FPGA?

Answer: first of all, ProgPoW practical problems run in FPGA. Because the random program changed once every 12.5 minutes, so often to compile and load a new bit stream to. This task is completed by the tools and facilities basically does not exist.

Even ignoring this problem, ProgPoW is not well mapped to FPGA, FPGA for computationally intensive algorithms (such as Keccak or Lyra) effective. Through multiple operations into a single clock cycle, running multiple operations at the same time, the algorithm can significantly improve the performance and reduce power consumption.

ProgPoW algorithm has many cyclic interleaved in sequence in the cache, which greatly reduces can be packed into a single clock cycle or parallel operation. In ProgPoW algorithm, packing operation FPGA not only reduces the performance of mining hardware, and increase the length of the channel information. Because of the large mixed state (16 lanes * 32 regs * 4 bytes = 2 kilobytes), increased the length of the channel information has become a problem.

If along each information channel of the copy of the mixed state, will waste a lot of power. Of course, we can also put the mixed state is stored in the register file, let the calculation of core FPGA looks like ASIC or GPU, but to do so, the operational efficiency of FPGA will be significantly lower than that of ASIC.


Q: all of the above answer seems very long, can do a simple summary?

Answer: of course

 ProgPoW ASIC how to resist? The development team IfDefElse for you to answer 

The relative efficiency of mining hardware

We took the Ethash and ProgPoW of 2 times and 1.2 times the estimate is that the same type of memory with the standard. At the time of this writing, we have realized that most of the GPU when using GDDR, we also compare to different standards, such as using HBM ASIC machine for comparison.

The original link:


Original author: IfDefElse translation & proofreading: fish

The ore horizon of translation finishing editing, reprint, please indicate the source.

“A” catch demon: when a good block chain pendant

Introduction: in April 12, 2018, Cai Yige, general manager of Tencent block chain business, released the block chain game named Z to catch the demons together. A year later, “catching the devil together” directly opened the list of APP after opening the public beta in April 11th. From the nature of the game, this is a LBG (location based game) +AR (augmented reality) game, block chain is just a pendant. In the “catch the devil” together, the player incarnated the spiritual master, explored the real world around him, and collected the spirits around him. The game quality is superior, and this game has its own block chain and OTC genes, whether from Tencent or not, but the players rely on WeChat ecology, if the game goes on, it will inevitably produce a two level market.

Next, DR little partners will bring you this “take together to catch the devil” strategy, the block chain as a pendant evaluation.

Beginner tutorial

After all, it’s the tour of big factories. The beginner’s tutorials are very detailed at the beginning. Even those who don’t play games can easily get started, and Chinese gamers have basically contacted Pocket Monster series games, and we have some understanding of the strange process. Let’s talk about some novice’s notes.

How to increase the hit rate:

Catch the demon need to consume the Pearl (catch the ball), the Pearl has three levels, the ability to catch up in turn, can also raise the success rate when feeding the evil spirits. There are two circles when catching the demon, the outer white circle is the spirit’s volume circle. When it touches it, it will trigger the capture action; the inner dynamic circle will shrink; the smaller the hit area, the higher the hit rate. The narrowing to the center 1/4 will hit the target perfectly, and the success rate will be greatly improved. The spirit sometimes strikes back and hits the ball. It often strikes back two times. Please wait for the spirit to calm down and play again.

Here are two ways to improve hit percentage without using props:

1. open AR mode, AR mode can get bigger catch ring with animation background mode. The following example shows that the radius of the same hoop in the AR background and the animation background mode is nearly doubled, and the area difference is 4 times. The former is more likely to throw a perfect ball, so when you encounter rare spirits, please open AR.

2. Spin Ball:

When the ball is thrown after the ball is rotated, hitting the spirit is hitting the target, and it can also improve the capture rate. The disadvantage is that the speed of the spinning ball is fast, and the bending of the track will often miss the target and waste a lot of beads.

The following is a DR companion’s unique trick. Take the rightward spin ball as an example. Move to the right and move the angle to 40~45 degrees below the screen. The core principle is: the ball before hitting the spirit is much reduced from the angle of the ghost’s plane, and the hit area is extended to the entire volume of the spirit. The middle of the screen is usually shot in the middle, and only the middle and right half of the body are in the middle. Another advantage of this way is that it does not need to wait for the ball’s rotation speed to come down. It can hit even if the fastest ball speed and position are correct. The efficiency of catching the goblin will not be reduced. The way from the middle to the ball usually needs to wait until the ball rotates slowly. The only thing to pay attention to is that this ball is more afraid of the spirits to jump up. Please wait patiently for the spirit to stabilize on the ground and play again.

The above two methods can increase the experience gained. Hitting the inner ring can get 10~20 experience. The spin ball provides 10 points of experience to double the speed of your upgrade. In the following picture, the experience of catching the devil is 20. Precision and rotation hit +25 more than the experience of catching the devil. Please learn how to throw the ball!

3. level promotion:

In the catch of the devil, the ranks of the masters are all, and the ranks of the spirits can not exceed the ranks of the masters. All kinds of advanced systems such as fighting, cats, and stall are all required to achieve the corresponding level by the spirit Master. The fastest way to improve rank is to brush up on tasks in the system. Daily tasks are the most important sources of experience. The task of “growing up” will deliver a lot of experience and resources, and must be completed in time. The mountain and river map is the exploration of the real world. Every exploration of a region will give 100 experience, which is very easy, but it needs to often open the mountain and river map to brush new.

Advanced tutorial

Spirit training:

Spirit training is the core of the game. Powerful spirits can occupy the arena, accomplish difficult tasks, and greatly increase the speed of game resources acquisition. Then what kind of spirit is worth cultivating? The 1 level spirits that have just been caught have a combat score and five attribute scores. The higher the attribute score is, the larger the increment of the property is when upgrading. The Yellow attribute in the attribute is especially important for the main attribute of the spirit.

If you want to be a powerful wizard, it is recommended to cultivate spirits with a total attribute of more than 30. The higher the correlation between the main attribute and the spirit occupation location, the better the life value and double defense of the tank spirit. The shortage of non occupational related attributes can be compensated by operation, such as the low physical defense of the output role, and the replacement of the tank in the face of the physical output role.

The battle of catching the devil is not an instant PVP. Instead, it is a systematic operation of the spirits left by other masters. Therefore, the attack is very important. Defense relies on operation to compensate for the shortage of some attributes, but high-end players still strive to cultivate spirits with all attributes above 30. In the early days, the spirit cultivation was usually aimed at attacking, and the following spirits were more common and powerful: the golden nose white haired rat, the little fox, the small rat, the porcelain doll, the Gan, the Mo, the thunder boy, the small fire turtle, the mountain wool, the wooden pile, and so on. Some high class spirits immediately occupy the arena around them and occupy several more. After being defeated, the ranking will drop, until they fall out of the top 100. The arena can provide abundant reward resources every day.

Block chain cat play:

When the wizard comes to level 22, he will unlock the exclusive CAT system and adopt a free cat. The exclusive cat is a digital PET based on the block chain technology and the original genetic algorithm. Each cat will present a unique image and belong to you. You can buy and sell cats in the trading market.

We explain some of the mechanisms and practices of cats from the functions of the cat market.

Cat Bells: This is the new generation of 0 generation cats that are generated by time in the Tencent block chain. The advantage of the 0 generation of new cats is that they may carry genes that are not present. These genes may be very good looking or strong BUFF. Secondly, the production efficiency is fast, and it can be recovered in one minute after breeding. The price of the latest cat is 1.5 times the average value of the 0 generation of the 5 cats bought recently, and then the price goes down over time.

Sale and matching: the selling area contains all the cats that are being sold, and the cat in the matching cat can reproduce and produce the cat baby with the cat’s own cat. But remember, genes are only genetically inherited. Babies born may not necessarily have the genes you screened. The purchase of cats and reproductive services requires payment of game tickets.

Publicity area: after the player sells his cat, the cat will enter the publicity area for a period of time before entering the selling area.

All cats: all cats produced.

My transaction: check player’s own transaction record.

All regions can screen their favorite cats according to various conditions.

The core of the cat’s play is its genes. Each cat carries a number of genes, which determine the appearance and function of the cat. It corresponds to the skin and BUFF in the game. When you walk in a state of mind, it will become a cat’s appearance. The cat with natural appearance will naturally enjoy it. Some cats’ genes will give players some BUFF, such as increasing resource acquisition and reducing the difficulty of catching the devil.

An analysis of the possibility of OTC dealing with “catch the devil together”

The block chain game, a cat with a dragon tail gene, has created a single price of 170 thousand dollars. The cat in the catch can also have the same value potential. The krypton degree of “catch the demon” is lower than that of other popular hand tours. Cats are the most valuable resources in catching the demons. There are countless BUFF full of qualified spirits, but each cat is unique. The master can enjoy three cats at most. So a cat with multiple powerful genes will be invaluable.

At present, the most powerful angel wing gene in catching the devil is not only beautiful but also effective, and it needs 3000 points (1rmb=10 points) for a breeding opportunity, and the purchase price is about 3 thousand yuan at 30000 points. All kinds of strong and beautiful cats will catch up in the future.

When players reach level 24, they will unlock the stall function so that they can sell spirits and props to earn diamonds in the game (1rmb=100 diamond). The function is very simple. If luck can catch some high quality spirits, each can sell tens of thousands of diamonds, but the most difficult thing is to grab the booth. This is not a simple mechanism design or a Tencent’s black humor.

OTC deals that may be faced with:

Now that there is a trading system, some players will be able to contact and earn profits outside the game.

Take the cat system as an example, if the player A has a nice looking cat, hoping to get the powerful BUFF gene of the angel wings, we can find the player B who owns the gene cat in the professional cat breeding WeChat group, then add B to WeChat friend, and pay him a certain fee or transfer to the third party as a guarantee (for example: group owner), please ask the player B to use the cat with the angel wing gene to breed. Unlike breeding in the market to charge 15% of the handling fee, and the breeding of WeChat’s friends is free to both sides, then for the above mentioned 3000 point ticket reproduction cost, WeChat breeding can make B earn 450 points, worth 45 yuan, which is the profit margin of OTC trading.

There will be more powerful genes in the future, so the difference between the price of 15% will be more than a hundred yuan. There is also a possibility that a krypton player A wants to leave the game, but there are 5000 tickets in the account that have not been spent. A can contact the player B who wants to receive the low price ticket, so that B can sell a low quality cat at the price of 5000 points, A buys the cat, completes the transfer of the ticket, and finally pays B to A.

There is also some possibility of over-the-counter trading in this aspect. For example, player A has a large number of diamonds, maybe a krypton player who wants to leave the game but has lots of diamonds, or a European emperor has captured many high quality spirits, has sold the spirits, and has obtained a lot of diamond (1rmb=100 diamonds). If he wants to cash these diamonds, he can find B, a player who hopes to get diamonds at low prices, so that B can set up stalls to sell some inferior items at a high price. Then A will swallow up B’s goods and complete the transfer of diamonds.

As long as B costs more than A, the cost of obtaining diamonds is less than the cost of official currency conversion, A has the market of scalping diamonds.

These three ways can theoretically cash in the game resources, and “catch the demon” has its own connection with WeChat. WeChat can easily transfer funds, providing the most convenient OTC environment.

Over-the-counter transactions have advantages and disadvantages for games. The disadvantage is that there may be a professional brush gold team that gains profits from over-the-counter transactions, thereby hurting the market environment in games. The advantage is that OTC will promote the circulation of resources. Players will be more willing to play games if they know that their pay is valuable, so that the game will have longer vitality.

But it will greatly reduce the fault tolerance of game design, and the design defects will be magnified by off-site transactions. For real block chain games, tradability is essential and can not be circumvented. Chain behavior can not be tampered with. The resistance to defects is far less than that of centralized games. The game built on them requires more rigorous design. This determines that the current block chaining game is simple and hard to innovate.

Big factories and professional game makers who focus on playing and innovating are reluctant to make games that are based entirely on block chains.


“Catch the demon” game is used by Tencent self built private chain TrustSQL, has been accused of rubbing block chain fever, but I think this is the first step of the two good combination of exploratory, countless players through “catch the devil” has some block chain concept, block chain also through the game in the public display of the value of another role.

Tencent has made a breakthrough in the combination of games and block chains. “Catching the devil” is not a pure block chain game. The block chain is just a pendant. It has no general experience such as tedious and slow speed, and the players understand the characteristics of the block chain in the game, know what the state of the cat is on the chain, what transaction records it has, and experience the market transaction and profit and loss on the chain. Perhaps at this stage, the combination of big factory games and block chains should be this way, allowing the players and the masses to accept the block chain games slowly, and the block chain as a pendant is pretty good.

Catch the next wave of password money world Unicorn

Author: Mohamed Fouda

Compiler: James Juan

Each block chain risk investment funds are looking for the same thing: a unicorn, the valuation of more than $1 billion in the company. Like, go to the mining bit hardware manufacturers and Coinbase this kind of exchange is the first among the blockchain company Unicorn club.

At the higher level, the current password money world Unicorn can be clearly divided into two categories: financial services, such as Coinbase, Kraken, Circle and other security or currency, mining hardware sector, such as bit, and Bitfury etc.. In this industry, there are some promising companies are expected to get a unicorn status, including Bakkt and Chinese core technology (Innosilicon).

However, there is a need to pay attention to. I expect the future will appear multiple passwords currency Unicorn field will block data industry chain.

 Catch the next wave of password money world Unicorn

Block chain data is hidden in a conspicuous place

In the current information age, investment companies need data to gain competitive advantage, this view is not fresh. Fresh, in the world, almost all of the data are open to the public. Every transaction of the network will always be recorded in a public area in the chain, including transaction amount and to address. However, in some sense, the data is still hidden. It is difficult to extract useful insights from the data stored in the block in the chain.

As a core developer of Ethernet 2 Prysm client Raul Jordan Fang said, for bitcoin and Ethernet square and many other block chain (LevelDB) database model is the integrity of the consistency of the transaction and optimization of the relationship is not directed at storage or retrieval. LevelDB Never mind model, also does not support the SQL query. This makes the extraction of any insight from this data format has become an arduous task. In addition, the research shows that LevelDB is prone to data corruption problems, which makes the process more difficult to block chain data.

Block chain data is hidden in a conspicuous place. A typical example is that in March 2018 during the Zclassic/ bitcoin Bitcoin with Bitcoin bifurcation, Private casting secret tokens, until December 2018, Coinmetrics issued a research report, it reveals the secret of the mint act.

An open chain block activity took about 9 months to attract attention! This is possible because the Bitcoin Private is not a popular project, however, this case also shows that even the “block” open chain data also need to go through special treatment, in order to draw meaningful information synthesis.

Where is the opportunity?

The processing and analysis of the complexity of block chain data provide an excellent opportunity for data scientists and engineers, let them join in the block chain industry, to create the company can solve these problems. Data synthesis and accurate analysis of the application is the most numerous in cryptography.

In the following sections, I will discuss these applications, the main provider of data and to become the path of the unicorn.

But in the study before, let’s ask a simple question: who need to query the data block chain, why?

The simple answer is: everyone.

The answer may be too vague and inaccurate, but the fact is so. Each encrypted user needs regular query block data chain. For example, when the user needs to know whether the transaction has been confirmed, she only needs to be connected to the blockchain Explorer Web site and use the address or transaction ID search. This is actually a block chain query, users “search” the entire block chain to obtain a particular address or transaction information. Block Browse Companies on behalf of users to perform the task and deliver the results. In the background, the company did not actually query block chain, relational database query but block chain data derived from a company created by the.

In order to compensate for the cost incurred, the company needs to find sources of income. For example, Ethernet square block chain browser Etherscan the most popular display ads to users to generate revenue. Almost all other data block chain companies have adopted a similar income pattern, regardless of its offer is DApp activity data (such as Dappradar) or different token price information and market value (such as CoinMarketCap). In many cases, had a negative impact of this income pattern, especially in illegal or fraud case project ads.

 Catch the next wave of password money world Unicorn

Market overview block chain analysis

The previous example shows the blockchain data’s “total addressable market Total Market Addressable. The number of up to tens of billions of dollars, because everyone in the field to access encrypted data.

Although in this case the blocks in the browser, the user cost is zero, by providing funds for advertisers, but meaningful data query, it’s not so.

For various reasons, investors, funds and even block chain companies require data collection and analysis much more complicated. For example, the password monetary exchange need to analyze the blockchain data intensive, in order to comply with the AML regulations of anti money laundering, and ensure that the user does not use the exchange in the clearing currency or stolen passwords and other illegal activities to pay extortion software. This kind of demand in the United States and Europe especially.

These companies also have the obligation to ensure that the user will not be transferred to the crypto currency sanctioned entities or provide financial support for the illegal operation. A number of companies, such as Chainanalysis, Elliptic, provides a block chain analysis tools, these tools are being used to attack the government and the exchange of money illegal password. Although most are more willing to exchange and professional data analysis provider of contract, but Coinbase decided not to take the unusual way, the controversial data analysis firms through the acquisition of Neutrino, the realization of these functions in the interior.

 Catch the next wave of password money world Unicorn

Note: Chainalysis chain smell just to get the extra investment of $6 million in April 17th, Japan’s MITSUBISHI UFJ Bank and Silicon Valley venture capital fund Sozo Ventures voted

economic data

Another area of the data block chain is of fundamental importance is to extract economic signals. Investors, funds and research institutions need to be strong and clear data to promote their investment decisions.

In this case, there are three types of data: data exchange network and talent shows itself activity data, data chain.

 Catch the next wave of password money world Unicorn

From the economic point of view, the exchange is the most relevant data. Given the password in a number of currency exchange, and the exchange reluctant to share too much trading activities on the basis of information, it is also the most difficult to obtain data. In addition, many exchanges such as the “scalping” this kind of deception, to depict a false picture of the user rate rise.

Similarly, data chain is scattered, because it contains almost all things outside the exchange, and these activities are not stored in the block chain. In addition, it is the most difficult to monetize the category, because it is essentially a public information. The other most of the work from the community or rely on donations niche websites such as Coin Dance, which provides the operation in the history data of the client distribution quantity / bitcoin network and node bifurcation on. Electric Capital developer activity report is a good example of community contribution, the fund is responsible for measuring chain activities.

Economic data provider

To clean and standardize data of growing demand, which spawned more and more companies, their aggregation, standardization and sales of these types of data. But it is worth noting that most of these companies focus first on the exchange of data categories, followed by network data categories. The chain of activities under the category was not to attract a large number of business needs.

At present, there are a considerable number of companies exchange data and network data categories, which has been existing in information quality compared with a year ago to reflect. Almost impossible to list all of these companies. But it is worth noting that include Kaiko, Coinmetrics and Messari platform. The company has made a significant contribution to the data ecosystem, and is likely to be greater investment income in the future.

Kaiko is the main provider of data exchange of historical data. Since 2014, they have been engaged in the business data exchange polymerization. They collected 1000 kinds of passwords currency from more than 30 exchange data. Kaiko can provide access to the data of the monthly exchange license, also provides subscription based services for unlimited API calls, the monthly cost of up to 2500 euros. Interested customers can also purchase the historical price and volume data and order book data. They also plan to extend the goods to the OTC OTC data. Recently, they provide data to the Bitwise, create a password real currency trading volume seminal report. The conclusion is that the report about 95% of the volume of trade is a false trading volume out of the brush brush. One of the main results of these data and the analysis of the creation of the “Real 10” trading volume index, the index is a summary of the 10 exchange trading volume, trading volume provides reliable information of these exchanges have been proved.

 Catch the next wave of password money world Unicorn

CoinMetrics mainly by its network data products, including the chain of data and many of their own development indicators, such as “Realized Capitalization” has been implemented capitalization index. Investment companies are actively trying to use these indicators to develop standards for the valuation of encryption currency. I will talk about later, faced with some major challenges, these efforts usually fail. CoinMetrics also in December 2018 for an additional 2 million pieces of revealing secrets casting Bitcoin Private token was widely recognized. The company is currently considering expanding their range of services will also be included in the data exchange.

Messari initial vision is the disclosure of important information about the project and its founder by encouraging block chain projects, such as detailed information related to the development of staff, early investors, ICO and Pre-ICO, to bring transparency for the password monetary ecosystem. The Agora database is open and free. In addition, provides an improved data stream Messari OnChainFx password as the main currency, including a plurality of innovation indicators, such as fully diluted in 2050 market capitalization and all listed encryption currency trading volume “Real 10”. Although the Messari is wrong with these data and public service charges, but they elaborate on the data insight research report and develop proprietary tools for the analysis of these data charges. In addition to activity data of a plurality of chain, Messari also plans to provide historical price and volume data to the client.

Challenges in the field of data

Although there are a lot of high quality companies in the chain block data fields, but these companies need to solve the main problems is how to release their true potential.

1. exchange data may be misleading, because it does not include the trading volume of the OTC market. Many foreign easy disk through the trading order book outside the direct transfer price negotiation and transaction. OTC activities are confidential and data companies need signed with multiple OTC provider in order to obtain these data.

2. in many cases, from the chain block chain data activity does not represent the real economic activities. An example is the mobile wallet tokens between different entities may be under their control, such as the heat exchange tokens from the mobile wallet to cold storage, and vice versa. To remove these events in the data, need to maintain a list of different address exchanges each use, these usually belong to the scope of work of the data analysis firms.

These problems will affect the integrity of the data, and lead to false or inaccurate opinions and conclusions.

The company obtained from the unicorn position how far?

Due to the nature of the business and customers, the blockchain data analysis firms is now closer to $1 billion valuation. The company is the customer must comply with KYC regulations of the government, legislative bodies and exchange. They have sufficient capital and strong financial entities, and these entities in turn on the side of the data analysis firms.

Another advantage of these companies is high barriers to entry and reduce competition. Early in the field block chain data analysis can obtain rich historical information, such as information extortion software attacks and legal proceedings, this information is not easy to be new entrants (or is that traditional software giant access).

Exchange data provide detailed order book and transaction information also has the same advantage. Early in their early polymerization so that they can exchange data, and these data are not available for new competitors. On the other hand, the network data can always be extracted from the data block chain. The innovation of this field mainly lies in how to improve the quality of data, and how to create unique insights or index to explain these data.

Go to the center of the data provider: The Graph

So the question becomes: after the block chain makes the world more to the center, we will meet in centralized, seeking rent data provider?

Well, although this is still a possibility, but to the center of the fans may not without a fight. For example, the team behind Graph The considered the issue, and through the construction of a decentralized protocol to solve the protocol to go to the center of the Web 3 index and query data.

About The Graph, its goal, its mode, and its potential energy, need to write a separate article. However, if their vision can be realized, the global data we can eventually reach a value of billions of dollars in sharing agreement, the agreement can still be driven by strong and independent data company.

How will the future?

In general, I believe that the data block chain industry has significant growth in the coming years, and will bring a lot of robust Unicorn company.

As mentioned before, if different data provider integrated into larger entities, so the main challenges facing the industry can be substantially solved. In this way, economic analysts can combine exchange and network data, a clearer understanding of the market activities. Data analysis based on these insights, economic data in clean and even more reliable.

Therefore, I hope the company can now expand into other areas of the industry. I also predict some mergers and acquisitions, will be the integration of smaller players into a large entity, to win greater market share, and provide more sophisticated services.

18 | Darknet Science Garden darling: Diablo currency market point


科普园地18 | 暗网的宠儿:暗黑币大盘点






科普园地18 | 暗网的宠儿:暗黑币大盘点




科普园地18 | 暗网的宠儿:暗黑币大盘点









科普园地18 | 暗网的宠儿:暗黑币大盘点










The rising trend is blocked, BTC prices will decide on what path to follow?


The standard consensus sentiment index began to decline in excessive zeal, emotional stability and emotional shock in good room wide, turnover has not been effectively enlarged, lack of new funds, although the overall upward trend has not changed, but the short-term pullback pressure.

上涨趋势受阻,BTC 价格将何去何从?上涨趋势受阻,BTC 价格将何去何从?上涨趋势受阻,BTC 价格将何去何从?上涨趋势受阻,BTC 价格将何去何从?上涨趋势受阻,BTC 价格将何去何从?上涨趋势受阻,BTC 价格将何去何从?上涨趋势受阻,BTC 价格将何去何从?

Bitcoin outperformed the Dow, NASDAQ, lost in 22 years

An old saying goes: Sheng Shihuaiyu, gone gold. All along, the gold hedging function, recognized by people. From the west to the East, from the agricultural civilization to the industrial revolution, the greatest consensus is always gold. In addition, gold has the attributes of currency circulation. Great revolutionary teacher Marx in “Das Kapital” wrote: “the natural currency is not gold, but gold and silver is a natural currency.”

As of the end of 2018, the global central bank holdings of gold reserves reached 33742 tons, increased by ten years more than 3800 tons. Especially in Russia, in the past ten years, the Russian central bank’s gold reserves rose from 400 tons to 2120 tons, an increase of more than 4 times the price of gold, whether up or down, the Russian Central Bank holdings of gold has never stopped the pace. The central bank also Chinese listed in its ten years, Chinese, the central bank’s gold reserves scale also rose from 600 tons to 1864 tons, an increase of more than two times, open since 2019, the three consecutive month of gold holdings is caused widespread concern in the international community. The dollar index and the price of gold was inversely related to the height, forming the “international capital holdings of gold to gold prices to further international capital holdings of gold” positive cycle. The weak dollar and strong gold, seems to be a new global consensus.

Review of the financial crisis in 2008, let all the bankruptcy of billions of dollars in big Wall Street investment bank, the financial derivatives value of evaporation, gold has become a crisis haven, while bitcoin also came into being. Bitcoin is branded “digital gold” imprint, and gold became “synonymous as a store of value”. From this Nakamoto bitcoin now has ten years, and ten years of ups and downs of the digital currency. From the initial $0.003 to around $20 thousand in December 2017, bitcoin is a brilliant year. In 2018, influenced by various policy implications, in the next few months, bitcoin market has shrunk more than 80%, the price of gold fell to $20 thousand from each $3200. The miners discontinued, mills sold on the pounds not surprising, more attention will return to high. In April 1, 2019, bitcoin prices suddenly soared rapidly through $5000, seems to let people see the faith.

The global banking giant UBS analyst Kevin Dan Nan (Kevin Dennean) said, bitcoin has bottomed out, has spent the bubble phase. The conclusion is that the bitcoin price trajectory and Dow Jones, A shares, NASDAQ and the other bubble comparisons. Shockingly, the research conclusion of bitcoin has bottomed out “and many encryption currency stakeholder views, but the Dennean report said bitcoin over the next 22 years will hit a record high. Although bitcoin from peak to trough decline and indeed 2000 NASDAQ (NASDAQ) and 1929 (Dow Jones Dow Jones) is similar, but bitcoin had also repeatedly experienced such a situation. From the time point of view, bitcoin has experienced 5 “bubble”, including the June 2011 to November fell 93%. However, bitcoin rise over the past 10 years is hitherto unknown.

Bitcoin since the beginning of this year rose more than 40%. Over the past week there have been several callback, but this encryption currency prices seem to remain at $5000. The last rose or upside is, to some extent, to bring stability and vitality to the digital world economy, coupled with the miners in high water period is coming, how power for digital assets into the stable market outlook, we have to wait and see.

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Bitcoin stable currency revival, OKUSD chain OKChain distribution based on

4 18, the world famous bitcoin trading platform OK group and the United States Trust Prime Trust held a media briefing, OK Xu Kun, vice president of strategic Prime Trust chief product officer Kevin Lehtiniitty attended the meeting. Xu Kun said, OK and America Trust Co Prime Trust jointly launched the OKChain compliance bitcoin currency stability based on OKUSD, which will set the industry benchmark for planning, actively embrace regulation to promote industry self-regulation.

Early in the 3 month 28 day, the United States Trust Prime Trust’s official website announced that the OK group and Prime Trust signed a strategic investment agreement, the two sides agreed to further cooperation on its competitive advantage, to jointly launch a new bitcoin stable currency OKUSD, and plans to migrate to the public on the mature OKChain chain.

The huge market of enterprises competing incoming stable currency

If 17 years is bitcoin outbreak years, 18 years is the rise of bitcoin platform, then 19 years is to stabilize the currency development year. In addition to block chain related enterprises, FACEBOOK, JP Morgan and other traditional financial institutions and Internet, competing incoming stable currency.

According to TradingView data show that the bear market in the encryption currency market the current market value of 200 billion dollars, equivalent to half of the total market value of the Internet giant Alibaba, in early 2018, the total market value of $700 billion was approaching the encryption currency, bitcoin currency stable huge market, rapid development.

According to the small non official data, the fourth quarter of 2018, the highest stable currency market capitalization, $2 billion 800 million, in April 2019, the total market value of bitcoin currency stable to $2 billion 134 million. Authoritative forecasts, bitcoin market will be a stable currency value of billions of dollars in the market, huge market potential, so that traditional financial enterprises block outside the chain into stable currency bureau.

2018 years 10 months, Prime Trust announced support for Stronghold USD and Standford IBM stable currency venture fund TrustToken startups anchor TrueUSD to provide hosting services.

The same year 10 months, announced the launch of fire currency bitcoin currency stable solutions of HUSD, called HUSD, is that when the user PAX, TUSD, USDC, rechargeable GUSD arbitrary a stable currency, in the account will be reflected in HUSD, when the user can put any currency, a stable currency choose a coin; when the stock is insufficient, can also put forward other stable currency options. HUSD itself and stable currency is not in the traditional sense, but a mechanism can also be understood as fire currency stable platform currency common integration, is currently running in the fire coins on the platform.

In January 23rd this year, according to finextra, another well-known bitcoin industry enterprises, block chain infrastructure company Blockstream is Digital Garage, and the Japanese technology company FS company Tokyo Tanshi cooperation, set up a joint venture, launched their first project is stable and the yen currency peg.

In February 28th, the New York Times reported: FACEBOOK is currently in a highly confidential bitcoin project, aimed at the crypto currency payment into the information service. Facebook plans to issue currency stable next year, allows its users to make international remittance like Paypal. In addition, New York Times, Signal and Telegram also plans to launch the tokens within the next 12 months.

In March 5th, USDT issued Tether announced a partnership with the wave field foundation, is expected to be launched with the TRC-20 technical standards of USDT in the wave field on the chain in the two quarter of this year.

In March this year, according to CoinDesk news, IBM announced that it has signed a letter of intent with the six international banks, intends to issue legal tender coins or tokens stability based on the use of IBM payment network World Wire.

At the same time, BCH also intends to the recent launch of BCH project based on the stability of currency, “the rapid expansion of the size of the market is a bull market stable currency basis”. Even the financial giant JP Morgan also announced in February 14th this year launched a similar stable currency JPMCoin.

3 month 28 days, OK group announced the launch of currency stability OKUSD. The United States Trust Prime Trust announced on its official website, OK group has completed a strategic investment for Prime Trust. The future of the two sides will jointly launch the OKChain OKUSD based on stable currency.

In fact, on the other hand, stable currency to ignore this is reflected in the CBBC, stable currency prices and profit model.

Stable currency instability, super premium, arbitrage, amphitropous

The market stable currency are: currency mortgages and digital asset mortgage, Taida company issued USDT belong to the former, provide virtual digital assets out of the gold channel, the current market value of 22 billion dollars, the latter due to its gold assets of chain, chain block is endogenous money, and legal the money market, will be a trillion market.

On the other hand, stable currency currency most belong to the type of mortgage has not acknowledged the block chain of the world, because monetary conditions and stable currency exactly alike will require payment, liquidity and credit endorsement, which determines the issuer must like the traditional financial market in the bank and other roles, contrary to the block chain to the center of the spirit.

In addition, stable currency funds because of insufficient reserves, reserves and authenticity of the collateral price fluctuations and other reasons to be questioned is not stable enough.

Tether (USDT) has been known as the dollar, once a stable currency king. In the absence of competitors in the 2017 to 2018 years, USDT has long occupied more than 90% market share stable currency. Although in the past two years, USDT has repeatedly questioned the lack of funds, reserve inflated USDT, but it is still the highest market value ($2 billion), the largest stable currency. But the lack of supervision, the flow of funds in doubt, reserve account is not transparent such as Tether (USDT) the biggest drawbacks.

In October 2018, trading volume accounted for 90% of the USDT stable money market plummeted in case there is no sign, the lowest price below $0.88, caused panic in the market.

Coincidentally, in March 14, 2019, Tether unilaterally amend the terms deleted before about USDT completely by the dollar support “, and the dollar peg exacerbated the crisis of confidence.

The text reads as follows:

Each one Tether is supported by 100% of our reserve assets (these assets), including the traditional currency and cash equivalents, sometimes may also include other assets and Tether payment to third party loans receivable, which may include affiliated entities (collectively referred to as the “reserve fund”).

Depeg Tether after the flow of funds is unknown, like a time bomb, then can be detonated in the circle of money.

In addition to stable currency fell apart when the market is hot money inflows, USDT stable currency will have a substantial premium. For example, in January 18, bitcoin prices still remain in 17 thousand dollars, USDT had reached the highest price: 7.77 yuan.

USDT premium also led to arbitrage phenomenon. An anonymous quantitative staff revealed that the team is based around a lot of quantization will use $1:1 exchange USDT, then USDT in RMB or other virtual currency, because 5% of the premium rate is directly converted into yield.

Bitcoin market needs legal compliance, do the anchor currency more stable, secure and transparent. Legal institutions and trust trading platform cooperation become represent the general trend.

The compliance issue, OK combined with Prime Trust issued OKUSD

A stable currency profit model, USDT’s revenue model is not understood by the public and the mortgage interest transfer fee, the bulk trading platform is the transaction fees, “USDT can drive the transaction fees, trading platform in Bitfinex is the bulk of the revenue USDT. “

And have to enter the stable currency trading platform also is this. Trading platform of capital stock, can the new deal for, this is their incoming stable currency advantage.

Xu Kun OK, vice president of strategy, said: at present, for the stable currency project, the industry is basically divided into anchor currency type, encryption type, the central bank mortgage assets type of these three types of algorithm. From the historical point of the price, the stability of “stable currency currency overcollateralization” best.

Prime Trust is an American blockchain trust company has a legitimate asset custody qualification, OK group and PRIME cooperation, to obtain legal qualification issued by the fiat currency stability in full charge mode.

Xu Kun believes that the stable currency is open digital asset trading channel, will open up the reality and encryption world, while OKUSD has a strong user base and perfect technical support, licensed compliance operations, professional service capabilities, rich industry resources, plus Prime Trust, will further break the stable currency market monopoly. And the introduction of incremental OK ecology.

Prime Trust CEO: security is the most important part of OKUSD. In OK and Prime Trust media conference, Prime Trust chief product officer said that the trust works will not lend to other customer assets, but to ensure the safety of funds. The security of the underlying asset is the most important part of the stable currency, which is why Prime Trust and OK jointly issued security, transparent and stable currency OKUSD.

But for the whole industry, OKUSD will adhere to the core values of the OK as in the past, the safety and compliance of the way to establish a new benchmark for the industry, actively embrace regulation to promote self-discipline, promote the industry to achieve sustainable and healthy development in the benign competition.

OK OKUSD will become the investment ecological lubricants, hedge products, build a complete closed loop transaction, and will open up the real world and the world for OK encryption, the introduction of incremental ecological.

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In the global economic recession, bitcoin will become “es-cap-e.”

“When there is a recession, bitcoin may be as a good way ShapeShift CEO and entrepreneur Erik Voorhees said encryption. In the upcoming collapse of the global economic recession and debt based, bitcoin may be the best way to deal with the crisis.

The recent global economic outlook is not so optimistic, the world’s largest hedge fund Bridgewater Associates co-founder Ray Dario said today the situation of depression and the situation is similar strange. He explained that in Davos published comments, from 1929 to 1932, printing money to buy financial assets and increase the number of amazing, just like today.

But he is not the only one that we will have another economic crisis people. Peter Schiff (Peter Schiff) because of its frequent in the media on prediction of depression of speech and the notorious far Zhao, he also believes that the global economy is down, this time will be worse than the one before.

“The bad news is that we will experience another great depression, and it will never be the same. This time even more than the Great Depression people before meeting much worse “Schiff said. “This will be a dollar crisis.”

Voorhees in Twitter published tweets that bitcoin will be the key factors for people to survive the economic crisis, economists and central bankers no longer pretend they can stop by their hand caused by the economic crisis.

The central bank for the whole system we developed in a time of collapse, while decentralization will be key to ensure that such incidents never happen. The mainstream media if you ask, they will say the overall economy seems to be better than ever. But whether you admit it or not, a recession, and some financial and economic indicators does not seem too reliable.

One of the biggest concern is the global debt crisis. Overall debt, especially sovereign debt, in a record every day. In fact, since the 2008 financial collapse, various forms of debt to nominal increase of tens of trillions of dollars around the world, the central bank to support its balance sheet, to borrow more money to promote the development of the enterprise, the consumer more than ever NewsBTC wrote, although the lender seems to have become more and more tolerant.

Bitcoin has long been advocated and an anti centralization free thinker Trace Mayer believes that with the human inexhaustible desire of social growth, accumulated up to $87 trillion in debt, this is exacerbated by the government and the whole society did not learn from the mistakes of the past. The global history repeats, few people learned from the past.

Focus on the modification of the country’s economic problems in the US financial services group Pedersen foundation said, “financial situation is not sustainable, and accelerating.” The federal reserve system has been trapped in their design, they are also incapable of action.

Can you use bitcoin as “es-cap-e.”?

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A number of bitcoin bitcoin RMB in whose hands?

A bit much RMB currency

In recent years digital currency is very hot, so famous in the digital currency bitcoin is probably the highest. Bitcoin since the market, because the price is within 3 years all the way up to 2 million dollars, it has also become the currency circle of myth. But at the beginning of the 2018 year, bitcoin prices have been falling, then until now bitcoin prices and in the end is how much?

The price of bitcoin is fluctuant, may every day the price will be different, so as to present the value of bitcoin in about 34800 yuan, equivalent to $5300 dollars, if the user wants to understand the real-time price of bitcoin, but also can be viewed in all kinds of digital currency market website.

At present, the price of bitcoin compared to the end of 2018 or December 2018 rose some, bitcoin prices fell to $4000, and even time fell to below $4000, thus bitcoin volatility is relatively large, so if there is a user to bitcoin investment, better have a certain the ability to bear the risk in investment.

Bitcoin how to dig, dig long

Mining is one of the way to get bitcoins, so the initial bitcoin there has also emerged a large number of mining bitcoin bitcoin miners, so in the end is how to dig? Dig a bitcoin and probably how long?

If we want to dig bitcoin, then the first thing you need to have a vehicle, the earliest people bitcoin mining mining machine is the computer configuration is better, then to 2019, personal computer is not to have basic mining bitcoin, so now we are using bitcoin mining machine for third generations. The miners in bitcoin mining, is based on its work force in the billing block chain, through the entry way to get bitcoins solutions, so as to solve the bitcoin password, get bitcoin.

The number of bitcoins is fixed, so with bitcoins available for such a long time, natural stock now is less and less, so the mining difficulty is more and more big, so according to the other miners said, if only in a machine case, dig a bitcoin takes about a year the time.

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The city of Bakkt. Considering the currency headlines license license, power on-line bitcoin futures contracts

quotations analysis

So far, BTC is still in line with our expectations, there is not much fluctuation. But this week is expected to choose the direction, if the final can along the dotted line in Figure shocks, each pullback will create higher lows, then it is possible to form a triangle shape, is a breakthrough in 5400 will be a high probability event, of course, if the callback when the volume down, and below the dotted line, then short term breakthrough time period will be longer, once below 4670 can be considered to stop out. (reference price: BTC/USDT)

Coin City headlines

[insider: Bakkt New York is considering to the financial regulatory authority for licensing]

Because the tokens storage problem on the customer’s CFTC expressed concern that Bakkt bitcoin futures contract has been repeatedly postponed. This is the license application, in order to appease the agency, allowing Bakkt to keep their own customer tokens. But the embarrassment is to obtain the licence or the need for approval of the CFTC.

[delete items related to the repurchase of the BNB currency security white paper]

Although deleting a clause, but the currency is still in reality for the destruction of tokens. “Repo” one word description is not accurate, because the repurchase can also quietly sell, only destroyed is really reduced the total circulation.

[report: bitcoin network managed to force 1.5% You can continue to BSV Launch 51% Attack]

BSV mining more and more low income, naturally also affected the whole network is size. Now many exchanges and wallet providers have stood opposite BSV the enemy, if the miners decided to join in retaliation, the problem will be much worse.

[Volkswagen is joining chain platform IBM supported cobalt supply chain block]

This mass showed promising efficiency, IBM block chain platform technology to enhance the global mineral supply chain based on sustainability and transparency.

[United States SEC And the financial industry regulatory authority will Six Monthly meeting to discuss issues related to encryption currency]

The SEC has repeatedly refused to apply for bitcoin ETF, encryption currency has not been recognized by the regulatory authorities, so the United States on the development of encryption currency is a lag in the system innovation, to discuss the development of the relevant regulatory act to promote its development.

The Central Bank of India [the new regulatory draft explicitly excluded sandbox encryption currency project]

India on the crypto currency regulation bill has been launched, mainly lies in the encryption assets are high risk, difficult regulatory issues, the regulators treat crypto currency more cautious.

[U.S. presidential candidates called for clear guidelines for encryption of assets]

The United States has not yet established clear regulations on encryption currency, need to clear the characteristics of currency encryption and supervision department supervision on the right, and then clear the legal status of encryption currency.

[PayPal Through a patent] to prevent the encryption.

This technology can use the existing system data cache to help detect extortion software, and mitigate its effects. If this technology can be applied, will better protect personal computer security.

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