This paper | Aloe
| editor Lu Xiaoming
Editor’s note: in 2008, bitcoin white paper released marked the official start of the block chain risks; in 2018, EOS was born, is seen as following bitcoin, Ethernet third generation public square chain, within a short period of time has attracted the blockchain world attention of many, although the way is also accompanied by controversy, but EOS innovation in technology and concept is still worth learning. According to EOS, the ecological planning, will be divided into EOS EOS birth Road, wallet, BFT-DPOS account and consensus mechanism, resource allocation, community governance, DApp, ecological economic model, intelligent contract, side chain and branch code of 9 parts, each part of the site index, will help you more understanding and learning EOS.
In this paper, in order to help readers better understand this, in reading “100 questions”, “block chain block chain class 100 asked”, and asked the EOS20 workshop manual entry of ethernet.
One, the birth of EOS Road
Two, account and wallet
Three, the BFT-DPOS consensus mechanism
Four, resource allocation
Five, community governance
Six, ecological DApp
Seven, intelligent contract
Eight, economic model
Nine, bifurcation and side chain code
The birth of EOS Road
What is the EOS? Can be said to have two meanings, can refer to the EOSIO software, we often say that the EOS or EOS backbone network; can also refer to the EOS platform for the circulation medium, EOS passes the /Token/ token.
EOSIO is a technology development team called Block.one as a software platform, its technical framework to build a block chain at the bottom of the operating system, the similar blocks in the chain, developers can quickly and easily build EOS distributed application software based on DApp.
EOSIO V2.0 technical white paper describes the software: “this software provides account, identity authentication, database, asynchronous communication, and the distribution of the program scheduling multiple kernel CPU or cluster. The resulting technology is a block chain structure, performance of the framework can be extended to the second million transactions, eliminating user fees, application and allows for quick and easy deployment to the center of the.” Generally, EOS (Enterprise Operation System), is a commercial for the design of the distributed application block chain operating system.
Before the public EOS public key chain, chain bitcoin, Ethernet two public square, the chain is facing low throughput and high fee problem, in this regard, the parallel EOS chain and BFT-DPOS consensus mechanism way is committed to improving the above problems. EOS network on August 2018 officially launched.
EOS syndrome (also called “Grapefruit”) is the value of the vector EOS, is an important tool to obtain, cyber source user voting, as each EOS ecological role in the series exchange role, in the EOS network on the front line, EOS was Fang ERC20 token based on Ethernet network, 2018 on the line, these ERC20 token by mapping become main native real passes. The mapping is equivalent to build a bridge between Ethernet and EOS square, in the main line, the need to generate a backbone EOS native currency address, and the Ethernet square wallet is associated with a series of operations, before June 2nd, will require temporary EOS tokens into the etheric Fang wallet, after 23 hours EOS, will be a snapshot of the wallet in EOS tokens, and in the form of the EOS platform to drop through card sent to your EOS address, after 48 hours, the etheric square on the temporary EOS tokens will be frozen without using the method.
EOS card has two different distribution methods: chips and seo. In the main line without anaphora temporary EOS ERC20 issued a token based on Ethernet Fang, raised all the way through the issuance of 1 billion pieces, all the chips in the beginning of June 23, 2017, and by the end of June 1, 2018, the ICO lasted 341 days, financing amounted to $4 billion, as the largest amount in the history of ICO. In the EOS main line, the annual additional 5% EOS, of which 1% blocks will reward producers and nodes.
How EOS is born? Cannot do without a company called Block.one, the company has two core characters, one is the CEO of Brendan Blumer (BB), a chief technology officer Daniel Larimer (known as bytemaster, people used to call him BM), founder of the Bitshares bit (to the center of the stock exchange), Steemit (to the center of the social media), is regarded as a gifted programmer, EOS is his third block chain business.
There is an interesting story worth sharing, in July 2010, BM Bitcointalk posted that bitcoin 10 minutes a transaction confirmation time is too long, and change the consensus mechanism can achieve this point. Nakamoto So said: If you don’t believe me or don’t get it, I don’t have time to try to convince you, sorry.
Block.one official website, EOSIO official website: the reader can have a general understanding of the EOS and EOS behind the team, but also can be easily linked to some website: for example EOS VC developer portal site EOSVC, EOSIO Developer Portal (an open source EOS development tools provided by the official platform, including senior documents, reference SDK and basic and advanced data and guide tutorial), EOSIO (EOSIO blog can track the latest developments, the updated version), 2018 roadmap (English Edition) (Chinese version).
If the EOS has more questions or want to get more development resources, can visit the StackExchange website, EOS Chinese quiz community, this is a summary of the Forum on EOS problems.
2, must look at the white paper
2017/5 – EOSIO V1.0 technical white paper (English version), Harvey @OracleChain, Chinese translator wolf Tan Zhiyong @OracleChain, Song Chenggen @OracleChain, @HelloEOS Cen zi;
2018/3 – EOSIO V2.0 (UK) technology;
EOSIO technology V2.0 (Translated): Jing Kai @EOS42 in the first EOS version based on the revised technical white paper changed into.
3, the main leaders of speech
BM: medium, GitHub, Twitter account blog (blog 2017 years ago).
BB: medium, Twitter account (the official EOSIO blog.).
4, recommended reading
“EOS Ecological Research Report”
“EOS episode: born Steampunk time” scam “and” blockchain
Account and wallet
EOS accounts can be regarded as EOS Chibidaigou access EOS online a voucher system. Have a EOS account, which can transfer, in EOS’s chain of voting, use of cyber source and the use of DApp.
As a Alipay account, in bitcoin and etheric Fang, account by a private and public address of. The public key can be understood as the account address, can be understood as the private key can be understood as Alipay number, account password, key, as Alipay password; the public key and the private key is a string system to generate a long list of.
In EOS, the public key account address 12 custom characters, it is convenient for the user to memory transfer between users through the account to operate.
The private key is different, more natural rights segments, corresponding to the two key: Owner 1, key 2, Active key. All control permissions for the Owner key can be understood as the account, with Owner key, you can do anything on this account of any thing, which is the highest authority of it, such as the modification of the Active key, a new or delete permissions; Active key can be understood as the capital account management authority, if there is. Active key, the user can only transfer the account funds can’t do other things.
It is also worth noting that create a EOS account to pay the extra cost. Why? Create account need to be stored in the EOS network, to take up production block chain node (BP) memory resources, size is generally 4K. While the memory resources are limited and valuable resources, thus creating account there is the cost of the memory prices and EOS prices with the market changes, so the main EOS account registration price is changing. (see Chapter memory resources)
Unlike Ethernet square EOS account account, unable to generate their own needs, from an existing EOS account to register EOS account.
The wallet is used for digital asset management tools. But in fact, digital assets stored in the EOS chain, the main function is to produce or store the private key purse, which at the time of transaction can be signed (similar to enter the payment password). It is a run on your local machine program, the PC and the mobile terminal can be.
The name of the official EOS wallet is keosd, which is responsible for the management of your private key, and help you to trade the signature. But keosd wallet for ordinary users is not friendly, it is a command line program, there is no Ethernet square like mist like graphical interface, but also can only run on Linux or Mac operating system, for developers, the existing nodes and offers user friendly wallet purse.
1, EOS Account Registration Platform
At present, there are four channels EOS account registration:
The browser plug-in registration: Scatter plug-in as the representative, is based on a browser plug-in EOS wallet, based on the chrome browser. For the safety of EOS assets and private key, with open source, the security of Scatter is the best choice, but the operation is more complicated, and the need to have a EOS account to help friends. This online tutorial.
Light wallet registration: EOS wallet service providers are usually launched EOS account one-stop registration service, users can buy Alipay Fiat activation code, can be a key step in creating, is more simple and suitable for white users EOS. For example: TokenPocket (registration cost 4.9RMB) and Morewallet (registration cost of 9.9RMB (EOS), Hufu wallet account suspected anchor cannot operate here to provide EOS money and resources, EOSVibes (emergency) to provide users with a number of security keys used to generate EOSnameswaps (device) , a good number of transactions intermediary platform). In this odaily tutorial.
Exchange registered : with other currency exchange with one click readers can create a way to exchange TOP.ONE as an example, EOS wallet support ETH, BTC, self created USDT, EOS 4 token payment.
Command line: registration is the official EOS wallet keosd registered account, belonging to high-end play, this kind of registration method in EOS network, just on the line around the tool has not been perfect as early users registered “liang”. According to an overview of Keosd, keosd in eos/build/programs/keosdEOSIO / EOS repository folder in the command line, to create local wallet registered in the docker environment, and then register the account name. The tutorial “5 minutes Institute of certified EOS network accounts, voting and issuing”, “taught you how to fix EOS Liang cybersquatting”
2, wallet: as EOS ecological entrance, EOS wallet is numerous, mainly divided into cold wallet (hardware wallet), mobile wallet, Web wallet, browser plug-in wallet, in addition, the GitHub can also find many open wallet.
(1) cold Wallet: Ledger Nano S, Trezor (Trezor Model T Bepal Pro will support EOS), S, Cybex, Memory, Box wallet Kuyt cold wallet (Starteos team produced)
(2) mobile wallet: the same function, generally have more sign, create an account, transfer, sale, DApp, voting page resource portal features, including support for the business chain wallet and node EOS produced by the special purse.
EOS LIVE (SuperONE development team), MEET.ONE (MeetOne Development), TokenPocket, HaloWallet (EOS, imToken produced by gravity zone) (well-known Ethernet square wallet, now supports EOS, Wheat Ecological) purse, bit pie (old bitcoin wallet, now supports EOS, state) letter EOS wallet (Bixin PocketEOS (OracleChain), ONE (produced), OneChain (BitPortal, produced) through coins produced), wallet (Hufu Multi Chain Wallet, with Cobo Wallet (financial management functions), Multi Chain Wallet, support EOS), zebra wallet (Multi Chain money package, support EOS Starteos (Starteos), MoreTop (production team) IMEOS produced)
Tomato wallet (team founder Sogou input method the father of Ma Zhankai).
Web wallet (3) : Bloks (EOS CAFE), EOSX (EOS, starteos, Asia production team), EOSlynx (by Starteos)
(4) browser plug-in Wallet: Scatter plug-in
Open the wallet (5) : EOSPortal, EOSWallet, eos4j, more open “EOS” wallet purse.
An important factor in choosing the wallet for safety (cold wallet > Hot wallet), interactive experience (> cold hot wallet wallet), team, individual, in the choice of EOS wallet, readers may refer to the public digital wallet chain list, select the high credibility of the wallet.
EOS wallet developed recommended reading Chaindesk’s column “EOS wallet combat development”.
BFT-DPoS consensus mechanism
Block chain is a chain structure with books, data storage, consensus mechanism to decide how to block, block chain network is used to deal, confirm the consensus protocol, but also reduce the cost of each distributed node trust agreement block chain, chain blocks currently in the world, including POW, POS, DPOS, PBFT, DAG mechanism. Recommended reading “consensus mechanism with eight block chain consensus mechanism”.
EOS in the first edition of the white paper is used in the DPoS consensus mechanism, the consensus mechanism by BM successful practice in bit shares, Steemit, in the latest edition of the white paper, which made some improvements, BFT-DPoS is now a consensus mechanism. To improve the content of recommended reading “white paper EOS V2 has modified the consensus mechanism which – (BFT-DPOS)”
DPoS (Delegated Proof of Stake), which authorized the rights that consensus mechanism. The mechanism of DPoS by giving EOS card holders the right to vote, choose the 21 “super node” (i.e., block producer block producer, referred to as BP) to serve as the role of accounting, to ensure the normal operation of the whole network. 21 super node in turn is responsible for bookkeeping, each block will produce, in order to pass on to the next super node, 2 super node to be responsible for the package of new blocks, and a block of confirmation on the content, when the super node in one block is more than 2/3 after the confirmation, the block will be confirm the irreversible block.
BFT (Byzantine Fault Tolerance), mean Byzantine fault tolerant algorithm, DPoS BFT algorithm and the consensus after verification is no longer in accordance with the order by a super node a verify block content, but make block nodes become the master node, a 20 node at the same time to rest after the broadcast, and get the node verification feedback. If there is more than 2/3 through the verification node, the blocks become irreversible block. BFT can make the EOS block to confirm velocity increased significantly.
The mechanism of BFT-DPOS due to the reduction of the entry node size, thus improving the efficiency, coupled with parallel chain, under ideal condition, EOS claims to be able to reach 1 million TPS. But go to the center of the fundamentalism in the block chain, DPOS mechanism and questioned by centralized node because of too little, this question still exists.
In EOS, there are 300 + candidate nodes, ore pool, currency exchange, encryption block chain consulting company and EOS team usually includes these fancier Party candidate node. They voted super node, an order will be in accordance with the block (the first alphabetical order) package, get the block production incentives; in addition, the EOS mentioned in the white paper, EOS year 5% to maintain additional tokens of nodes, the amount of EOS was 1 billion, 5% have 50 million tokens, with EOS token price. For BP, this is not a small income.
In the draft constitution of Thomas Cox EOS (the link to community governance) summary, article fourth: “any member shall not offer or accept any valuable items in any form, including super node candidates, the amendment or the worker proposal, will not unduly influence another person’s vote. “Buy a ticket, ticket bribes in EOS are not allowed in any case.
In addition to the 21 super node, and 49 nodes in the EOS ecosystem. These nodes are facing some problems is to replace or super node interference, to maintain the stability of the system.
In addition, another set of alternative use node as the balance of power. First, if a super node, other nodes can cancel the super node status evil vote, and the nodes will always monitor the super node behavior, if there is illegal behavior, the nodes will attract votes through democratic means, replace evil nodes, so as to realize the function of supervision.
The nodes of EOS ready to substitute the existing super node, they need to ensure that the same and super node hardware nodes without affecting the network caused by replacement of EOS.
EOS to ensure the enthusiasm of the nodes, each node is assigned to the 1% pass card rewards, only 0.25% is given to the super node, the remaining 0.75% will be in accordance with the number of votes received proportionate to the super node and all nodes.
Read more and more about the super node, recommended reading “how to become a super node EOS? “,” what is the EOS super node? Why does it need to compete? “” bear under the EOS node: we did not make any money back to the server, “” super node dilemma, community governance “,” awkward room EOS elephant “.
Because the EOS DPOS consensus mechanism, each EOS money holders have the right to vote, as Chibidaigou, voting is a very important right, need every voting member treasure and properly exercise the right. At present, the referendum system of EOS super node campaign and opened in January 2019 (see the specific governance chapter) are required to vote.
Syed founder Cafe Calgary Canada node EOS wrote in an email on the Internet if you hold financial shares and want to protect it, then the best way to decide the future of the system is involved in the voting process.” The vote is not directly benefit, but in the super node in the campaign, when Chibidaigou selected super node is good enough to ensure reliable and stable operation of the EOS network; and in the referendum, the vote will be issued to the community voice in the EOS ecosystem specific issues, and even change the network settings and the EOS constitution, there is for EOS ecological prosperity in Changzhi, only when both of the above can be achieved, so with the development of EOS, cash in the hands of EOS will also rise, this is the indirect benefits of voting.
So how to vote? The development of EOS.IO software company block.one has said that the command type tools they will only release a version of the EOSIO1.0, which requires users to grab a GitHub code in the library, to your local computer operation, some nodes have set the user friendly interface, to achieve a one-stop service in some of the nodes voting website block, browser, wallet, can exchange.
Another way is through proxy voting, the voting rights to the agent, so we vote instead of polling agents. Proxy for those who want to vote, but can not understand all nodes candidate users is very useful.
The voting rules by EOS users to hold up to 30 tickets each token to the election of the first 21 super node; the method of voting for the pledge of EOS for equal voting rights, pledge period, EOS will be locked, nor can not transfer the mortgage transaction, from the user to cancel the lock up period of 72 hours.
You can vote at any time, and change at any time. The vote is recorded once every 126 seconds, which is the completion of a block time required. Each round of a block, each super node will generate 12 blocks, each block generation time is 0.5 seconds. This means that the super node election every 2 minutes and 6 seconds of time. Each EOS token can vote for 30 different candidate nodes. The candidates each node of your investment will be that you have the votes.
But the 30 cast one vote rule so far has been questioned, will quickly make the head of super node joint vote, control the whole chain, and increase the possibility of producing bifloral. At present, the referendum proposal for a vote.
In order to ensure that users often update their vote set, Block.one introduced a long half-life of one year for voting weights. The half-life will begin in a week after the vote. If a user does not vote again in a week after the vote, the weight will decay. A year later, the votes will be reduced to 50% of the original weight. If the user re vote, vote weight will be fully restored.
1, block the browser (query search tool, you can query to the relevant information of the EOS, including TPS, the number of transactions, account number, price, EOS / resource supply, the new block, EOS / resource rich list, turnout, super node for live and so on, can also query the account information, and vote super node or a referendum, usually by establishing a large number of nodes).
To understand the definition and recommend several commonly used browser: eosflare.io (EOSFlare, eospark.com (produced) by EOSPark bloks.io (EOS), Cafe, EOS HK, eosx.io (produced) by EOSAsia).
It also included several parameters including some special browser: eosnetworkmonitor.io (block information panel is more commonly used), eostracker.io (network information panel and the EOS panel with good price, (eosq.app) EOSCanada products, trading block information with clear (eostree.io) a visual browser, very interesting data), eosblocksmith.io (a English website but, including some EOS news, EOS travel, education, video website), cypherblock.io (finishing tool contains hundreds of EOS block chain to the center of the market capitalization and trading tokens), eosindex.io (EOS Canada products, including some of the blockchain Recruitment Information)
Produced by EOS Asia eosgo.io and IMEOS imeos.one produced by the website containing hundreds of candidate node information.
If you want to preview all EOS nodes in the global map, can open cypherglass.com, you can see the top 10, top 50 and top 100 and all nodes of global stagnation;
The EOS node vote has been changed, blockproducers.info provides a node ranking change.
3, super node voting site
Super node voting results show site in addition to the above block browser, some including self-service channels of voting sites: alohaeos.com, eosphere.io, fire currency pool, as well as noted above the light purse is also comes with voting portal.
You can find proxy voting channels in the eostoolkit.io, the “EOS Proxy tutorial visible medium Voting: Everything You Need To Know”.
In addition, some analysis of the vote for the results of the voting site, further data processing and result analysis.
Eosauthority.com:EOSAuthority produced, showing the turnout, the vote, vote, vote on the chart analysis, regional analysis chart of voters, the degree of attenuation can also check the voting weights.
Eosbeijing.one:EOSBeijing produced large changes in statistics than 20W EOS account, account of the rankings, behind the voting node number, node account vote vote ratio data.
Dapptools.info:EOSTitan produced, with visual characteristics.
Alohaeos.com: Based on the EOS proxy, account number, total number of agents provide a proxy voting list.
The core idea of EOS resource allocation in token system on behalf of the right to the use of resources. EOS users or DAPP developers need to buy token, and the mortgage system accounts for EOS, computing resources to obtain network bandwidth resources and the right to use CPU. In the EOS system, there are 3 kinds of resources are: network bandwidth resources (NET), CPU (CPU), computing resources running memory resources (RAM).
1. network bandwidth (NET)
When a user sends a transaction information, the transaction will block producers need to generate packing blocks, then the blocks through network synchronization to other producers, this process needs to consume network bandwidth resources.
2.CPU computing resources (CPU)
When a user initiates a call intelligence contract this action, according to the need of intelligent block producer contract contract address lookup code, then the code is loaded into memory for execution, the process requires a certain CPU stress. CPU through EOS mortgage free access, the more EOS mortgage, the ratio of CPU or more. But the proportion of the more does not mean more stress, because CPU is how much depends on the mortgage pledge EOS/ pool EOS the proportion of the total, that is to say, with the increasing number of mortgage pool EOS, the old user has originally CPU ratio will be shrunk.
But the negative effect of this mechanism is that negative feedback is easy to failure, CPU prices, mortgage amount of the whole network also followed up, and EOS becomes more expensive, forming a vicious spiral. And some DApp take up too much of the main CPU, causing the user resource, even unable to transfer. In this regard, in October 2018, EOS will be the main global parameter TARGET_BLOCK_CPU_USAGE_PCT increased from 10% to 20%. In the Kylin network test results, a conservative estimate, this change will increase at least 2 times the available CPU resources. In addition, in order to reduce the cost of resource use, BM released the EOS resources lease and rent allocation proposal, to get rid of EOS and irrational behavior of free mortgage mortgage, keeping only those that really need to use the CPU EOS mortgage behavior.
3. working memory resources (RAM)
Account information, intelligent contract EOS system in the execution of the current state information is stored in memory, the information storage requires long-term memory resources; the total amount of RAM by the super node decided to vote together, once confirmed, will not happen in a short period of time a large amplitude expansion; general DApp development, EOS the increasing need to create an account of RAM; the provisions of the contract fee of the sale of RAM EOS network system will charge 0.5%, RAM is not transferable and can only lease, and trading system.
In order to achieve the market allocation of RAM, the price of RAM using Bancor algorithm (here recommended reading “BANCOR” algorithm, to learn about the “Bancor agreement” Research Report), by the market supply and demand determine the price of RAM, the more people buy, the higher the price, to ensure the liquidity of RAM resources. But because of the scarcity of RAM, RAM in mid 2018 was skyrocketing, causing speculation.
For RAM prices increasingly popular, in July 11th, BM emotional exit EOS RAM telegraph group, and then put forward 3 proposals, 1, increase the supply of RAM (expansion), that node 64GB annual growth rate of RAM, if the price is still too high according to the community needs to be adjusted, reduce the use of each 2 the account memory rate is 3, Block.one will develop iOS wallet, users will create a free account. With the July 26th RAM expansion proposal to vote by RAM has been based on the current 64GB, each block increased by 1KB RAM, the RAM price regression stable.
In simple terms: CPU and NET obtained by mortgage EOS, belongs to renewable resources, transactions for computation and bandwidth; RAM need to purchase system, belongs to the fixed resources account for storing relevant data, including account name, authorization information, contract, contract and contract code ABI intelligence data.
In order to reduce the EOSIO based block chain using NET and CPU resource cost “, March 2018, BM released the EOS resources lease and rent allocation proposal, IMEOS gives the Chinese translation, namely REX exchange (EOS Resource Exchange.) Mainly to solve the problem of asymmetric resources, (some investors have a large number of EOS idle, on the other hand, many developers are also facing the problem of lack of resources.)
In the exchange, REX token as a resource token. The lessor can be pledged to the EOS REX, for REX token (T-Rex), the ratio of 1:1, as a proof to lease back the principal after the cocoa and get the rent, but also get the right to dividends in proportion to REX; and the lessee to pay a certain amount of EOS as rent (the Bancor algorithm of leasing resources how many), to obtain the right to use of EOS resources 30 days expire renewal.
The premise is to buy REX tokens must be 21 BP (super node, can be understood as bitcoin miners in order to get the purchasing power to vote).
At present, the REX proposal is not yet available is still in testing and updating, EOSIO, GitHub can track the update code, fix bugs; the EOSAuthority website will also publish the test schedule and plan the next round.
EOS EOS: resource planner NewYork products, including CPU, CPU and RAM market leasing, RAM calculator, a relatively complete website.
1, CPU rental platform
CPUemergency: every 48 hours to have a chance to get a free CPU for 8 hours; in addition, some cooperation with DApp game player in the game can also be free rental.
Chintai: 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, 28 days of lease lease transactions CPU.
YOURtoken:EOS transfer emergency, provide a CPU value to maintain 10EOS 24 hours, other prices ranging from 1-99.
Bank of Staked:EOSLaoMao products, 1 provide free emergency plans and 6 plans to pay.
EOSBank: an open source platform for lease.
ZKS: similar to a REX model of resource exchange, buy the tokens can be leased.
2, RAM site
Tokenpocket: real time price quotation, single record, large ranking, transaction records.
Chaince: a center of trading platform, trading RAM.
RAMDEX:RAM trading site.
MarketstackD:RAM RAM rich list, the additional price calculator.
Governance is the consensus algorithm, need people to reach a consensus on the subjective issues, specific performance for the community to express their wishes by voting decisions; at the same time through the Convention amendment, to change the rules of governance.
In the community of EOS governance, governance of power in the hands of the holder of the Token hand, Token holders can be agents of their own rights to block the production (super node voting), thus generating block will have the appropriate permissions (freezing of accounts, update applications, defects of the bifurcation of the hard bottom protocol change etc.). When the delegation went out, authority is limited, supervision and inspection.
In the EOS system of governance, legislation, law enforcement and judicial three pillars.
The EOS / EOS constitution convention is based on the principle of community governance, here to express the form convention is more appropriate. In BM’s view, “the constitution is a peace treaty, as a community, we in the formulation of the basic rules, since it is a fundamental rule, must be clear. The best use of non violent ways of self governance, if we do not use self governance of non violent ways, then there will be people over us by way of violence.”
The present Convention by BM and the super nodes are drafted, at present, in accordance with the time line has three version: Thomas Cox led the drafting of the Convention on the V1 version / version; BM shortly before the proposed version of V2 (claim intent / legal code) in translation; and drafted by the EOS Amsterdam version of V3 / Chinese translation. Comparison between V1 and V2 in terms of convention can compare two existing versions of the EOS convention analysis reference He Delin “”.
Since the initial convention has not received sufficient consensus, appeared in 2019, the new system of legislation. In January 11th, a referendum related intelligence contract eosio.forum launched by EOS Canada in 3 days, obtained 16 BP (super node) of the vote. This means that, since then, EOS Chibidaigou the freedom to create views on EOS matters proposal, can also be used to express Yes or mortgage token No recommendations on the proposal, the vote of the EOS to EOS 15% of the total vote to take effect.
In many proposals initiated, REX, ECAF, EOS, uses a referendum and inflation is five BP the current proposal focused topic.
In judicial practice, EOS also established a set based on the EOS Convention and authority based program. The arbitration as a main part in the administration of justice, is a kind of no court can solve disputes. The two sides dispute their position submitted to the professional arbitrator, the arbitrator by professional comprehensive review of disputes and make a reasonable solution.
ECAF is a service provider for the EOS the autonomy of arbitration institutions, including the following three parts:
1.: assignment of arbitrators to the case administrator; Arbitrator of recruitment, training, examination, replacement; contact the implementation of BP rulings; 2. arbitrator arbitration; Arbitration: 3. basis: EOS EOS constitution; dispute resolution rules (RDR); EOS arbitration handbook.
In the main line so far, EOS network design disputes and arbitration of common problem is: when the EOS account owner because suffered fraud / hacker attacks and other acts, leading to the secret key is stolen, and the assets recourse dispute.
When the ECAF arbitration results came out, EOS super node is the staff and law enforcement.
At present, ECAF and EOS super node arbitration power and law enforcement power implementation of the new system is not ideal, the referendum is also considering whether to overturn ECAF. Recommended reading “centralization or decentralization, 21 super node will execute EOS emergency measures to protect the order? “EOS,” the referendum, there is 5 big focus “.
The referendum website
EOSAuthority: a proposal Chinese version.
Eosx.io:EOS Asia products, clear and detailed, and provide proposal for voting channels.
Bloks.io:EOS CAFE products, and provide proposal for voting channels.
Eosdac.io:EOSDAC produced, showing the proposal to proposal as the main body, and provide proposal for voting channels.
Eosalliance.io:EOSAlliance products, provides a referendum procedure, voting website hyperlink.
EOSforum: sort by time line proposal.
Smart (Smart Contract) what is the contract? In simple terms, the contract is written in block intelligence on the chain code / program execution will be triggered automatically under certain conditions, for ordinary people can understand written for a transparent, even if people can not be tampered with the program. It allows us to do not need the third party case, implementation of traceability, irreversible and secure transaction.
EOSIO developer documentation such as EOS smart contract: “the real world contract, in simple terms, is a set of protocols, given its input behavior, it will produce the corresponding results. From the formal contract law (such as financial transactions) to a simple game of “rules” belong to the category of contract. The typical behavior can transfer (financial contracts) or mobile game player (the game contract). EOSIO intelligent software contracts registered in the block chain, and executed in the EOSIO node, which implements the “contract” semantics, and a storage request behavior contract in block chain, namely request books.”
Intelligent contract defined by EOS contains two elements: the procedures and the implementation of the contract on behalf of the contract behavior when. It not only supports the transfer contract, CPU, Bandwidth, RAM machine market, mortgage voting in its category.
Intelligent contract based on EOS WebAssembly (WASM) technology, because of the use of WebAssembly, EOS smart contracts currently only supports C/C++ language, simple intelligent contract from 3 files:.Hpp files,.Cpp files,.Abi files on the WebAssembly (WASM), recommended reading “why EOS intelligent contract selection Web (wasm) Assembly”.
At present, with intelligent contract security incidents frequent, intelligent security problem of imminent contracts. Chengdu chain security technology CEO Yang Xia said, found in the audit client contract: EOS token contracts are integer overflow problems such as part of the contract implementation is not rigorous. Including: integer overflow error; permission check is not rigorous; the API function does not regulate the use of conventional error code. (details visible “chain security vulnerability analysis technology,” EOS “series of smart contracts summarize some problems and suggestions”)
The current smart contract security audit platform is Certik, slow fog, Chengdu chain, KnownSec, Hacken, Zepplin.
According to Article 7 of the EOS constitution, all intelligent EOS block on the chain contract must have the Ricardo contract.
The contract proposed by Ian Grigg Ricardo in 2000, the first for the Ricardo payment system, the first is the application of bond trading system. It is a clear definition, can not be tampered with readable text, mainly used for trading clearly the intention of the parties.
A very simple example, intelligent contract is written “A to B a EOS, B returned to A a EOS”, the contract only ensured that A and B both sides also give complete action, but the return of the EOS false ones, the quality of the enemy, even if it is false, the contract can also be performed. When Li Jiatu contracts with smart contracts, if the return is not B EOS, which is not the code intention, contract cannot be performed. Of course, this example is very simple, but the truth will be more complicated.
In simple terms, intelligent contract essence is a code, is based on the blockchain, and will in the block chain to detect specific condition / event trigger, for ensure party executive commitment; and Ricardo contract can list all code intentions, output process to code a constraint. In the world, sometimes there are some understanding of concepts and clarify, to rely solely on Intelligent completion. At this time, Ricardo will give each a transfer contract definition of some of the more clear terms, to ensure that the transfer intention can give intelligent execution of a contract to bring more accuracy, realize the integration of human and machine to perform better.
In the EOS GitHub code library, provides an example about the Ricardo contract, the contract in intelligent hello.
A deeper understanding about Ricardo’s contract, Ricardo recommended “contract (The Ricardian Contract) in the English translation version of” Ricardo “, the control about what exactly the contract”.
EOS has two kinds of network – network and test network. Test network (Test net) and network (Main net) is a relative term, refers to the main network officially launched, can block the chain network independently, with real economic value of digital currency in circulation network. The test is a test version of the future of public network chain, similar to the main function is to try new ideas without destroying the main case, only as a test application.
The main EOS version has been updated, from 1.6.1 to EOSIO have dawn-v1.0.0 iteration. If you want to know the EOS updated version of history, can enter the GitHub Release and Tag pages, access to dozens of versions of the update files from the 2017 year and update the content.
The test network test network Jungle Testnet and jungle kylin test network CryptoKylin, recommended reading test network Guide to the use of EOS Debug.
EOSIO source code library: can track the latest code changes.
EOSIO Chinese document: developers guide and contract intelligent tools, EOS developers must read.
The platform provides an open source developer tools EOSIO Developer Portal:EOS official, including senior SDK documents, reference materials, basic and advanced data and guide tutorial
The developer resources (the original @Steve Floyd @EOS42 finishing Jing Kai): including the developer community, the developer documentation / tools, development tools, web browser, network testing, basic operation tools / plug-ins, different languages RPC package, complete website.
EOS block chain development guide: including the development of documentation, testing network environment configuration, Scatter interface development.
Slow fog Security Development Guide: to provide security standards and some known vulnerabilities for EOS intelligent smart contract contract developers.
EOS intelligent online contract editor: https://dev4eos.com/#/:EOS Mediterranean products, EOS Mainnet, to support the jungle test network and kylin test network, users are encouraged to submit issue on Github.
The official telegram developer group.
And most of the current public chain as the economic model of deflation, the total issued constant is different, the EOS token inflation issue mode, 5% of the total annual issuance.
The EOS token inflation model mainly has the following two reasons:
In the EOS system, the block of producers of motivation is not to charge a fee through the issuance of EOS, but every year for the excitation of super node tokens. Through the issuance of EOS tokens, for incentives to achieve the goal of user fee exemption.
Due to the EOS system resource is allocated according to the holdings of EOS tokens, so the existing EOS tokens will not support commercial applications with more operation. So EOS needs to continue to respond to additional tokens, long-term development needs.
Since the EOS main line, EOS has gradually become a powerful rival etheric square, attracted a large number of DApp settled. Until now, EOS has settled in 300+dapp, currently, DApp types include guessing game (Gambling), (Games), to the center of the exchange (Exchanges), collection category (Collectibles) and high risk (High Risk), the market (Marketplaces) and other. (Others).
According to the report of dapp.com in 2018, in the two quarter of 2018, EOS has become the transaction amount and transaction volume are the biggest public chain. Among them, 97% of the transaction from gambling, trading volume of 75% from betting game. Among them, the EOS node for the extended EOS DApp ecosystem, is playing a crucial role. They developed a variety of tools to facilitate the account settings, and lending resources. And the main node for many EOS DApps have investment or as a consultant to provide advice.
But with the prosperity of DAPP, EOS has gradually become a hacker’s paradise. According to the statistical data and the blockchain security service provider PeckShield, last 7 months to 12 months, EOS chain of DApp were 49 37 and DApp security incidents, resulting in project total loss of nearly 75 million EOS, according to the price of currency conversion occurs, the total loss of about 319 million.
Recommended reading “2018 11 square, EOS platform and DApp Ethernet data analysis report”, “after the Fomo3D EOS Pixel Master, why 9 days suction gold 80 million dollars? “,” study of the EOS system after 224 Dapp, the biggest winner is super node “.
1, DAPP website : dapps collection and update; data analysis (including daily living, the number of transactions, the total transaction data etc.)
Imeos.one:IMEOS produced a EOS DApp tool, include ecological project information platform, information platform, EOS dropped wallet, exchanges and other sites.
Spiderdata.com:Spiderstore products, in addition to the 24h and the 7 day live, trading volume rankings, there are EOS new users, new contract visual image.
Dapptotal.com:Dapptotal produced a list of robots to remove interference, and very intimate marked price.
Eosindex.io: focus on information collection and update the DApp.
Dapp.review: include DApp number.
Dappradar.com: clear and detailed.
Dappx.com: a DApp app store
3, EOS dropped information gathering site
Imeos.one:IMEOS produced, showing airdrop project and date in the list in the form of airdrop.
Airdropsforeos.com: information panel, visual effect is good.
Eostoolkit.io: the need to install the Scatter software, can be a key for drop candy.
Bifurcation and side chain code
Under the DPOS system, a DPOS block chain will not experience bifurcation, because of the block producer is through cooperation rather than competition to block production. So there is no consensus for bifurcation resulting in bifurcation of the chain case. Even if there really is consensus bifurcation, will also automatically switch to the long chain.
The existence of EOS bifurcation and side chain code two forms. Recommended reading “EOS backbone and side chain, branched chain”.
1, the code (code forks) bifurcation
Code bifurcation means with the EOSIO code, create a new, independent block chain. May bring the advantage in this chain of new, go for some special needs to be optimized, of course, there are also some changes will not necessarily bring about improvement. Code forks, the project can have full control of the chain. Everything you wanted to recommended reading “know about EOS forks but were afraid to ask” / Chinese translation.
Now Worbli (financial services industry platform), EOS Force, Telos, Ono, Wax and other projects, can be regarded as belonging to the code type of fork.
2, side chain (sidechian)
The side chain is an independent block chain, is the backbone of auxiliary building. The side chain through bi-directional anchoring manner and backbone connection, means that the main and side chain token price is to maintain a fixed exchange rate. The side chain can increase the additional performance and characteristics, more to the backbone for example, used to run the DAPPs or horizontal expansion of the entire network. BM believes that communication is the key to efficient cross chain extension and evolution. When we learn how to expand, a token can easily from one generation to the next generation of chain transfer. The contemporary and future generations can run side by side chain chain at the same time. Recommended reading “side chain (Sidechain) white paper notes”, “main chain and side chain have what relation? “,” is currently developing the side chain technology include? “,” the study notes | Xiaoming read block mechanism “,” cross chain chain EOS side chain line on the first day, the cat taking on the choke behind the team and node “.
At present, Fibos and BOS belong to the side chain of EOS.
A collection and update the EOS ecological project site, including block browser, community sites, games, tools, wallets, trading sites and other tools, in addition, each project contains the founding and development team information, the time line.
Focus project update
A list of EOS tools and projects
Block chain active matrix
EOS art website