Sometimes we think that the ancients were stupid, but history is just a little girl who keeps changing clothes. The girl is still the girl. You don’t know her just by changing her coat. In the 17th century, Holland was experiencing a great social change. The “80 years war” made Holland independent from the Spanish Empire. During the war of independence, Holland was in urgent need of foreign aid, so it opened its door to all kinds of people to look for opportunities. In Amsterdam, Harlem, Delft and other places, a large number of trading institutions have been established, including the most famous Dutch East India Company. Although the country is facing war, it has brought explosive growth and huge wealth to the international trade of the Netherlands. Moreover, at that time, the Netherlands was different from most European countries. Holland was ruled by urban oligarchs composed of rich businessmen, while in other European countries, it was still controlled by kings and land nobles. The fundamental change of the ruling class brought about changes in the whole society. New ideas, new funds and new culture completely changed the Netherlands of that era. In the late period of the war of independence, the country gradually stabilized, and social interaction and cultural values gradually became enthusiastic. The upper class businessmen, in particular, are as fascinated by the exotic as today’s rich are in pursuit of new things. At that time, goods from two places were very popular. One is from the Far East, mainly China and Japan, and the other is from Osman. When the Dutch rich see the elegant tulips, their eyes are quickly attracted, but they are only attracted to a commodity. To make people deeply interested, the most important thing is not the commodity itself, but “how the story is”. To be popular, a good story is needed. It is said that tulip was first discovered in the valley of Tianshan Mountains in the East. According to ancient records, the first tulip was brought to Istanbul by explorers in 1055. Since then tulips have belonged only to the most powerful and powerful people. In the middle of the 15th century, Mohamed II, the great Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, was especially crazy about tulips. He had 12 large gardens. Each garden had different colors of tulips. Every day, 920 gardeners came to take care of these 12 gardens. Finally, tulip became the symbol of the Ottoman Empire. Tulips were officially introduced into Holland in the middle and late 16th century, and only in the gardens of nobles and botanists. Carolus Clusius, a Dutch botanist, was obsessed with tulips and compiled them into rariorum plantarum Historia. According to Kurus, tulips are the most precious and rare plants in the world, and their number may be limited. (precious, rare, and limited in quantity, these labels are not bad for bitcoin today.) At that time, tulip, which was rare in Europe at that time, was wrapped in such a noble and rare story, and its value immediately doubled. There was no Internet or television that month, and few people went to Osman, let alone go to the garden of the Ottoman palace to see tulips. (there are Internet and TV today, but few people know what bitcoin is, and they all hear about it.) a mysterious story, an elegant plant, is enough for the rich to pay for it. In addition to the social background at that time, the social background was too important for human dementia fanaticism. As the war of independence of the “Dutch Republic” came to an end, the military threat of Spain was lifted, and the Amsterdam exchange moved into a new building. The East India Company made a lot of money in the colony. The stock price rose at the most vigorous stage in the 17th century. The stock price rose, so did the house prices. Houses were built in the suburbs and wasteland. The Dutch Republic has the highest income people in Europe and perhaps the world. Religious beliefs are also washed away by wealth. The Calvinism (frugal life), which was originally believed in Dutch society, was replaced by hedonistic consumerism. Today’s bitcoin craze also has an important background, which is the hot money flow caused by unlimited QE and unlimited money printing by central banks all over the world. In the 17th century, buyers of new things began to collect tulips. Tulip, as a general term, can be classified into many kinds. Just as cryptocurrency is a general term, bitcoin is also the most popular one under “cryptocurrency”. In addition, there are etheric, TEDA, reborn and many other currencies. According to incomplete statistics, there are at least 2368 cryptocurrencies in the world. Every once in a while, new products appear on the market, attracting speculators’ attention. At that time, tulips were the same. They had to come up with all kinds of gimmicks to hype. Then the color of the flower becomes the classification standard of tulip speculation. So “Augustus forever” was fired as bitcoin in tulips “Forever Augustus” was defined as the most expensive one because of the royal purple stripes on the petals. How much was the “Augustus” worth at that time? An Augustus can buy a house in Amsterdam. Today, a bitcoin has not been able to buy a suite in the capitals of various countries. It can be seen that it can continue to fry and rise. In addition to the most noble “Purple Augustus”, according to the color of petals, they are divided into governor, marshal and general. Different products have different prices. Because the people at that time lacked the knowledge of biology and botany, they did not understand that the color change of tulip was caused by the virus attacking the bulb of tulip, and they thought it was really precious. Human beings have one characteristic, that is, they will have two emotions for ignorant things: one is fear; the other is that they worship the 17th century human beings, and they are ignorant of biology and botany They worship tulips that grow purple petals. In the 21st century, people’s ignorance of blockchain and decentralization makes them worship all kinds of cryptocurrencies. Today, we laugh at the tulip mania of fools 400 years ago. After 400 years, our descendants will also laugh at our today’s hot money speculation. The fear and worship of ignorance are inherent characteristics of human beings. And this feature, it won’t change. Tulip mania in the 17th century spread throughout the Dutch Society (today it is all over the world). In the later historical book “extraordinary popular fantasy and people’s madness” in 1841, it was described that at that time, people set up companies only to buy and sell tulips. Ordinary tulip planting was very simple, and did not need a large range of land, and the transaction was not restricted by trade unions, so the transaction became very popular Everywhere, even flooding. (where are the 2368 cryptocurrencies in the world today? Apart from a small number of similar bitcoin, how difficult is the production of most other cryptocurrencies Originally, the tulip market was only opened in the summer when the bulbs were unearthed. However, with the increase of sales and the increase of sales, the tulip market soon became non-stop throughout the year. Each row of tulip bulbs is carefully marked and made very important, especially precious varieties will be sold by plant. Many ordinary people can’t afford expensive Augustus, marshal and other varieties, but they can also buy and stir fry ordinary varieties, just as you can’t afford bitcoin. Other cheap cryptocurrencies can still be fried. (although a lot of money has been lost) in addition, the trading situation is very particular. How can a mysterious and noble commodity be sold to you like Chinese cabbage in the vegetable market? Just like the same antique, you will be totally willing to pay different prices at antique shops and auction houses. Speaking frankly, the sense of ceremony is very important, the atmosphere is very important. The same is true of the mysterious tulip trade. In the tulip trading building, there is a professional intermediary company (known as the gardener) to receive your business. The afternoon sun shines into the luxurious room and sprinkles on each tulip, adding splendor and mystery to these actually worthless flowers. The gardener will take the slate seriously, register your name or the company you represent, and then hand over exquisite wooden plates to everyone present. You can write down your favorite tulip on the plate and offer. After that, according to the order of the names on the slate, take back the plates in order. The whole process of inquiry and price negotiation is very time-consuming. This is also the middleman who deliberately complicates the buying and selling process in order to increase the sense of mystery and make the people who buy the noble tulip feel that “this thing is really hard won.”. As the tulip trade on the market became more and more frenzied, there was soon no physical delivery. Tulip futures, here we go. Because tulip bulbs are still buried in the ground, tulip futures are also known as windhandel. The Seller issues a note to hand over a specific type of tulip next spring, while the buyer has the right to buy the tulip. A large number of tulip promissory notes are traded in the market, creating a fairyland more beautiful than tulip itself. You may not have seen the tulip at all, but the tulip promissory note has been handed over a dozen times. It’s like you’ve never seen cryptocurrency, and you probably don’t understand it at all. Do you really want to own bitcoin, ether, TEDA, ripo and so on? No, you don’t want to. You just don’t want to be the last one! Cryptocurrency is more illusory than tulip. If tulip mania is the result of all Western Europe, then cryptocurrency mania is the result of all human efforts. Will bitcoin continue to rise? Of course! Today’s global social and economic background is very suitable for bitcoin speculation. As mentioned above, countries all over the world are trying their best to print money. Printing money has become the only “good way” for countries to save their economies. In order to combat the impact of the new crown on the economy, the United States has launched the unlimited “quantitative easing”, printing money into outer space, and a large amount of hot money has poured into the market and entered various fields of speculation. In addition, if we look at the economy from the perspective of psychology, it is not difficult to find three points: 1. Human rationality is limited. You can’t use rationality to consider the market. People who use rationality to consider the market will often be taught by the market. 2. The society has certain preferences, and people like to see them. You’re a fart. The simplest example is Chinese liquor. People all over China know that “liquor can’t save the Chinese people”, but you can’t change the soaring of liquor stocks. How much hot money is there in liquor stocks? Who are frying liquor every day? This is the preference factor of Chinese society. 3. In the face of temptation, people’s self-control is usually poor. Bitcoin and tulip are the same thing. You know very well that it is dangerous here, and you know that it may fall down, but you still can’t help but want to taste the “dangerous taste”. This is human nature and market. Rationality stands aside. When is bitcoin the head? Speculators say this is just the beginning, and it’s no surprise to double it again. Half a year ago, those who questioned bitcoin had already been puffed up Recently, bitcoin has reached a new high, standing at the $23000 level. How can it not be crazy? But the problem is that collapses, often in the blink of an eye, or even a very small thing, can burst a huge bubble. At the height of the 17th century tulip mania, a sailor from abroad mistakenly cut a friend’s tulip bulb for an onion in Amsterdam. He mixed the bulb into a herring sandwich and ate it. His friend immediately angrily called the police, because the bulb grew red and white flame shaped petals, which is worth the price of a mansion in Amsterdam. The matter went to court, and the plaintiff asked the sailor to compensate for the corresponding value. But after deliberation, the court ruled that the sailor was not guilty. It was just a tulip bulb. “It’s just a tulip bulb,” like a needle into the tulip market. The court tells you it’s worthless. Since then, the bubble burst and prices collapsed “Just a tulip bulb” and “just a bitcoin” will be called out when the bubble bursts as China and the United States tighten their regulation of digital currency. There is nothing new in history. There is only a girl who can’t be recognized by changing her clothes. She knows the danger ahead, or she will go forward bravely. I respect you as a warrior. I hope you can find your “catcher”.