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nnnIn the first half of the year, the APF has launched a four-step roadmap in 2015, and now the tower area chain has come to the third stage of the road map – Metropolis (metropolis). For a long time, this has always been the focus of attention and controversy, but the attitude of the developers is willing to be safe, it is wise, but it makes this stage can not land, and even lead to community debate and question. But for the time being, regardless of the time period, the contents of these plans also did some changes, this article specifically describes so far, the tower of the upgrade plan to make what kind of adjustment.n
nnTranslation: Clovern
nFaster, lighter and safer.n
nThese are the next steps to upgrade the Metropolis (Metropolis) to bring some advantages at the time of its final announcement. Metropolis is the third stage in the first round of the four-step roadmap in 2015, which has long been the focus of attention and controversy, and perhaps it will still be the most significant change in the platform.n
nBut for emerging technologies, this is not only a kind of welfare, and may bring real risks.n
nVlad Zamfir, an developer of the APF agreement, stressed in a tweet published earlier this year:n
nn”The ethertop is not safe or scalable, and it is an immature experimental technique.”n
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nIf there is an upgrade will reveal the fact that perhaps Metropolis can.n
nAs the major changes to the platform make the real money at risk, the developers are always inclined to step by step, choose to offset the user, business and desire the technology to get the next major progress of the market issued Complaints.n
nMetropolis Informal Release Manager Hudson Jameson emphasizes that developers “are always contented” – hesitant, although it is also wise, but it brings a series of delays. (The recent conclusion of a topic on the platform r / ethereum, which gathers the most of the technology global enthusiasts, even in the question of what is the exact deadline of the initial commitment – has produced contradictory conclusions).n
nBut for the time being to talk about the time period, these plans did produce a lot of change.n
nMetropolis was once regarded as a stage where technology-friendly technology was finally put into use, but it has also changed a bit and may have changed the final code.n
nAnd although once we think we will usher in an “abstract” era (Vitalik Buterin proposed this concept in 2015 and that “this can be said that it exists all the reasons”), but the final release may be a more conservative code Then
nTherefore, the upgrade has now been divided into two stages: and named Byzantium (Byzantium) and Constantinople (Constantinople). And although these two stages are still gradually evolving, but the two eventually affect the way the network is beginning to take shape.n
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nByzantiumn
nFor the time being, Byzantine has a total of nine etherbox improvement agreements (EIPs), or a single code patch for the network. These include changes such as the difficulty adjustment problem, the “return data” operation, the “static invocation” operation, the new precompilation, the difficult delay function, and the return transaction data in the receipt.n
nAll of which are designed to make the network more efficient, while minimizing potential vulnerabilities. Most will correct small details that are not obvious to non-developers.n
nHowever, some are also quite important.n
nThe ongoing changes will better handle the error code within the smart contract, so that if there is something wrong in the program, it will not be able to pay. In addition, since the contract upgrade can be pre-configured into the original code, these changes will have a transformative impact on the life cycle of the contract.n
nAnd because some of the changes are also designed to prevent events that are called re-entry attacks (untrusted code entering contracts to manipulate contracts), so the contract will be re-secured.n
nThe new functionality for embedding transactions in the receipts of the transaction will enable the light client to determine whether the transaction was successful without actually executing the transaction in the virtual machine. This will also affect the chain tool.n
nAnother upgrade will be delayed in the entire network detonated the difficulty of bombs to ensure that the transaction time will not become unbearable. (Trading time is currently around 25 seconds – 10 seconds higher than the ether square.)n
nThis update will also reduce the incentives for miners to tap the block chain, which would mean that the mining process will become faster and cheaper.n
nAnother mining solution eliminates the previous error in the difficulty adjustment to ensure that the block time is more stable.n
nThe new precompiled features released by the Byzantine stage also paved the way for zk-snarks, which were able to implement real private transaction encryption for the first time on the ethernet network. This is the z-cash (the technology for the first time widely used to privacy as the center of the encrypted currency) generated by the cooperation.n
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nConstantipolen
nSo what is missing? Unfortunately, these plans did not set Metropolis’s second hard-bifurcated Constantipole release date. This is because some editors have been found to threaten the assumptions that have been set in the depths of the ethernet code, which opens the door for many potential vulnerabilities.n
nHowever, by simplifying the transaction evaluation process, planning an EIP or paving the way for a light client implementation. At present, the evaluation contract requires both the current state of the block chain and the last 256 blocks of hash values. For light clients, there is a need to drastically reduce the processing of this large amount of information – and EIP 96 achieves this in a simple and ingenious way.n
nHowever, the main obstacle seems to be the core of the project’s EIP 86, which is also one of the most interesting (and most complex) aspects of all EIPs.n
nEIP 86 is expected to achieve the abstraction of account security, making the account more flexible and more customizable, while achieving a detailed description of the new features. Users can define their own security model and write their encryption specifications into the payment process.n
nBut the problem facing EIP 86 is too significant and takes a lot of time and effort to get it right.n
nOn the one hand, it was revealed that the agreement changed several variables and opened the endless cycle of problems. And as early as June, had found a loophole will allow the malicious miners to re-block the chain to obtain the ownership of the wallet, or repeated the same transaction.n
nHowever, new problems and potential improvements may occur before the encoding is completed.n

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