Forbes: Quantum Computing To be a threat to the security of Bitcoin and Block Chains, what are the reasons


nnnSome people think that quantum computers may be far more than today’s traditional computer processing power, and through the Shure algorithm (Shor’s algorithm) to crack the RSA password, and Bitcoin and other currencies used by the digital signature. Which threatens the development of today’s full range of encryption technology and encryption currency. But recently Google’s quantum computing expert John Martinis in the encryption technology related activities that we can rest assured that due to the instability of the quantum bit, from the birth of quantum computers and crack the implementation of password technology for a long time, And then the development of encryption technology may also be far beyond the current level.n
nnTranslation: Clovern
nThe future of the day, the quantum calculation may be far more than today’s traditional computer processing power. In this case, some cryptographers and encrypted money users may be worried about this idea.n
nBut Google’s quantum computing expert John Martinis thinks they can rest assured.n
nIn a cryptographic activity last week at the University of California Santa Barbara, Martinis talked about the reasons for building a quantum computer for more than a decade. He said:n
nn”It’s really harder to build a traditional computer.”n
nnThe next reason for his construction of a quantum computer is that it is the “quantum bits” that correspond to the smallest bit of information in the traditional computer, “he said at the packed 2017 encryption conference (Crypto 2017) And is not stable, which brings extra work to the physicists who are trying to solve the problem. The four-day conference was hosted by the International Association for Cryptographic Research.n
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nCrack public key cryptographyn
nThe reason why cryptographers worry about quantum computers is that if the researchers build a quantum computer that goes beyond the performance of traditional supercomputers, the RSA password will be cracked by the Shor’s algorithm, which is Used to ensure data security on the Internet.n
nLikewise, quantum computing may also crack the digital signature used by the bit currency and other encrypted currencies. This result is not loved.n
nBernardo David, a cryptographer at Tokyo Institute of Technology, explains:n
nn”That means you can fake transactions and steal money.”n
nnBut so far, this threat seems to be far away from us.n
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nUnstable qubitn
nMartinis on the stage holding a cell phone on behalf of the qubit in the three space tilt and move, detailing why the quantum computer may take many years to build.n
nTraditional computers use information of 1s and 0s in a two-dimensional world, while qubits used by quantum computers can represent two values ​​simultaneously in the “superposition” range of the two states.n
nIn fact, these quantum bits are inherently extremely unstable, which makes the measurement process in a field not clear enough.n
nFor example, some people see the work of competing quantum laboratories as a “horse race” based on who has the most quantum bits. Martinis said: “This is the wrong view.” He explained that it is more like a two-dimensional horse racing, quantum and qubit errors need to be taken into account.n
nHe said, however, that while most physicists will tell you their best error rate – because it is their most proud of, but by the build system to make a living people know that these are the deadliest worst error rate.n
nUltimately, his team hopes to reduce its quantum bit error rate to very low numbers. He said, but so far, they “still remain in the flight of the first aircraft of the stage, from the target there is a considerable distance.”n
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nQuantum hegemonyn
nIn the process of building a quantum computer, Google plans to achieve some of the smaller goals.n
nFor example, Google plans to achieve the goal of “quantum supremacy” by the end of this year, that is, quantum computers are superior to all traditional computers in terms of performance.n
nMartinis believes that his team can successfully achieve this goal, but to achieve this they need 50 quantum array. At present they already have 22 qubits, and he thinks they should go beyond the target size.n
nThen, when communicating with Martinis, I asked how long it would take to break the RSA encryption solution. He replied that even if his team was able to build a quantum computer within 10 years, it might take longer to crack RSA.n
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nThe reality of the block chainn
nIn view of this, I also talked with several cryptographers at the 2017 Encryption Conference to understand the quantum threat posed by quantum computing. But it seems that they are not too worried about this.n
nA cryptographer who does not want to open his name thinks it is necessary to crack the digital signature to “government level” and add that the first break may need to be successful on a $ 50 million machine.n
nHe said:n
nn”It may take a few months or maybe a few minutes, but it’s going to have a high cost to crack a digital signature. Once you have successfully cracked a digital signature, we will start discussing when a criminal will The cost of the dollar does this. “n
nnAnd another expert who does not want to open his name is scoffed at the idea and wonders that when the quantum computer becomes a reality, public-key cryptography will progress to far beyond current levels.n
n”It takes at least 20 to 30 years for a great idea of ​​the risks and threats to quantum computing,” he says. “This will really be a threat, and by then our signature scheme has been upgraded “”n
nIf this is true, then Bitcoin and other encrypted currencies will be quite safe for a long time and will not be threatened by quantum computing.n

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