A brief history of de centralization

Editor’s note: This article from the blue fox notes (ID:lanhubiji), author: lanhubiji, compiler: Li Xi and the daily planet, unauthorized release.

Objective: to the center of the technology is not a vacuum, it has its own historical evolution. This history is essential to our understanding of the bigger picture next to the center, the development of block chain understanding has a very good help. From a macro point of view, we can find that the center is not always objective, it is just the way to realize the goal of people. There is no need to exaggerate the centralization, and history tells us that we should use the technique of centralization prudently, otherwise it will encounter the challenge of the law and ultimately be counterproductive. The author of this article is John Backus. The article comes from medium.com, translated by “Li Xi and”, the public number of the blue fox notes.

Why do we have to develop the centralization technology? How do we predict what will be successful, what will be closed, and what will end as a scientific experiment that can’t be landed in reality?

As mentioned earlier, block chains are not the first wave of centralization, and we can learn a lot from the history of P2P file sharing. By observing how the de centralization of file sharing has evolved, some obvious lessons can be learned.

L when the specific centralization technology is denied, the mainstream de centralization will appear as a response to the law.

L de centralization is best used carefully, it confuses some technology, and the technology can’t exist as a centralization system.

L if you want to know whether something should be centralization, then look for informal centralization to reveal the needs of the formal system;

L de centralization is part of a larger legal strategy manual to protect the survival of specific technologies, especially when technology is unseen by the central organization;

The L de centralization does not play a role in the vacuum, and the mainstream de centralization system requires a certain degree of activity to keep the system running.

If we go back to 1997, we can see that the distribution of MP3 starts from centralization, and as time goes on, the centralization is growing, and this history helps to answer some of the difficult questions:

L what time should we build to the center?

How do we know what l should go to the center?

L we should go to the center of the technology to reason how people will use and support our building?

These problems are the core of each to the center of the project now. And the answer to entrepreneurs, open source contributors, investors and internet activists are closely related.

The center of the pure

 To the center of the history of Technology

Early file sharing is very simple: the MP3 file is directly managed on a server at the University

People began to share copyrighted files in the 80s of last century, but we will mainly introduce the history of sharing MP3 files. The MP3 file can compress its size to 1/12 of the original file while maintaining good sound quality, which makes it a catalyst for the start of the music revolution. With the speed of the Internet in 1997, a good compression method can make it easier to exchange music online.

David Weekly shared the MP3 file on his personal website in 1997, which runs on the server of the Stanford University. People love him so on the website of the free music, noting that the Stanford University:

“Your computer currently occupy eighty percent of the downlink traffic throughout the campus, we are just curious, what are you doing?”

David Weekly ‘s Mp3 Book

When RIAA asked, David will be the site of the line. There are many other websites that get down in the RIAA’s MP3 file check. Although it was not clear at the time, a ten year long war on sharing free music was brewing. The message of the first battle is clear: do not trust the MP3 that runs the copyright, or else it will be prosecuted.

The centralization of the MP3 file distribution (legal problem) defines the precondition for the centralization movement. The encryption of currency, the history of the corresponding event should be free of death and electronic gold dollar (see: facing legal problems of center). For Tor, the corresponding Tor should be before the advent of the Internet. Which sites are not allowed to exist, which should be examined? Here is the common legal restrictions, it makes people unable to use the network.

Hyperlink bedding

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A MP3 search engine with a link only. Pay attention to the file hosting address of the search results

People are constantly uploading copyrighted music to centralization servers, but RIAA keeps them off.

Mp3 enthusiasts have found a new home: a link – only MP3 site. The website provides users with Everfount services, this is because the RIAA does not like the traditional centralized server shut down so easily shut down their. Each of the MP3 files are sent to other people on the server; if the third party host was shut down, site administrators only need to update the link and its deletion. The website operator for you will be the source of the link chosen, thereby reducing the workload of other people. Informally, with only link to the MP3 website will MP3 file link center, and will register the address to the center.

Mp3board is the only link containing MP3 sharing network piracy typical stage. In the lawsuit with RIAA, they argue:

“If this automatic hyperlink is ruled illegal, then the entire Internet should be shut down.” MP3Board.com’s defense lawyer, Ira Rothken, said.

– RIAA: this hyperlink is not allowed. From “line”

Mp3board’s legal defence of hyperlinks also represents the theme that other P2P technologies are fighting: creating an automated system that helps people download copyrighted data from external sources, is there any fault?

Mp3board explored the meaning of the law, but they did not have enough to do everything outside the court. A RIAA spokesman said well:

“It is important for the MP3Board.com source of their links to the fact that copyright theft openly is clear. They link to the so-called “super pirate MP3″ website.”

– RIAA: this hyperlink is not allowed. From “line”

Can tech companies be able to write software that complied with the literal meaning of the law but violates the spirit of it? The blatant strategy does not make it easier to be prosecuted, and sites like mp3board have been designed to be more defended by law.

When we mention centralization, only linked MP3 sites in the late 90s are not in line with our imagination today: they are hyperlinks and direct downloads. However, this transition from centralization to only linked sites still shows the evolution of Decentralization: when the law points to a centralization software and requires it to make changes that the user does not want, the technician dissolves the software and blurs the characteristics of the judicial system.

Pure linked sites are very interesting, because they represent a relatively simple solution to the problem of closing the host by law. For the encrypted currency, the corresponding scheme should be the mixed currency, which helps the bitcoin users to concealment the source of money. The privacy – oriented V P N service provider does not store any logs, and this phenomenon suggests that people want to surf the Internet more privately, and do not want to be tracked. Anonymous buy domain name and host supplier phenomenon also suggests that people have the privacy requirement in operation site.

Napster boom

 To the center of the history of Technology

Although the pure link MP3 website is very useful, but people waste a lot of time in the treatment of damaged links. Shawn Fanning, founder of Napster, said, it is these dead links led him to the initiation of the idea of founding Napster.

When you open the Napster, it will be your list of MP3 files and Napster server sharing. When people search, the server will only display the files of the online users. The “my PC” in the user’s computer is connected to each other and can download the song directly.

Napster makes a formal distinction between what we see on a purely linked MP3 site: centralized file location information, and centralized file distribution. By removing the dead links, and allows Napster to maintain the huge MP3 file storage, which is the number of other people to run far beyond the reach of this website, formal and improve the user experience.

Most of the Napster users also share files in the system, so the Napster music store breadth and depth will increase with the increase of users. Napster can not only avoid the dead links, they for the perfect application of P2P technology means that Napster may have the ability to provide any specific song download.

The music industry sued Napster shut down its service, and the company went bankrupt. Secondary liability means that Napster should be responsible for any copyright infringement occurs in their platform. For the secondary responsibility at the time of trial includes the following four questions:

1. Napster has the ability to supervise and stop the infringement?

Is 2. Napster profit from infringement?

Does 3. Napster be informed of the infringement?

4. if Napster is aware of the infringement, do they intentionally encourage such behavior?

During the proceedings, the judge told the Napster to shut down their services if they could not prevent users from infringements on the platform. Napster adds a filter to avoid premature death. But there is evidence that they can stop the infringement proceedings before, and it did not choose to do so. Internal documents also make Napster uncomfortable, one of them is that the user growth will bring future benefits. Separate internal e-mail clearly aware of the infringement behavior Napster:

“For example, the document, written by the co – founder Sean Parker, says it is necessary to ignore the real name and IP address of the user,” since they are exchanging pirated music, “the same document also mentioned that in the bargaining with RIAA, Napster will benefit from the following facts:” we can not only provide pirated music, but also promote demand. “

A&M Records, INC.v.Napter, Inc

The court ruled that Napster promoted tort by establishing a “proprietary software, search engine, server, and user computer”.

Each is important:

L search filter

L file sharing software to generate profit motive

L company executives tort

L promotes the infringement

These is the guide to the center and file sharing technology standard winner. In other words, the participants in the future have to solve the above four problems to win.

The Napster’s inheritance of pure linked MP3 sites has introduced a continuous cycle of evolution in the process of de centralization. When the judicial system effectively turns off the centralization solutions, informal circuitous solutions will emerge, and often these informal processes are eventually developed into products and integrated into the protocol.

This is to the center of the circle center, to circumvent the law: agreement. Repeat. File sharing´╝Ü

  • Mp3 file hosting website, containing only link to Napster website

  • The Napster server to OpenNap and Kazaa hybrid network

  • Too great to kill the Torrent tracker to support multiple standby tracker to DHT

If the only linked MP3 site is a paving for Napster, then coin tumbling looks like a paving for the appearance of a private currency like Monero and Zcash. Privacy oriented V P N proves that there is a need for a general solution such as Tor.

A web site that operates anonymously can help the development of services hidden by Tor. Before the birth of a powerful solution, to the center of the mainstream technology usually needs a group of people through continuous efforts to get the same line function.

Try to go further: OpenNap and Napigator

 To the center of the history of Technology

Napigator’s informal de centralization search server

Open source developers reverse the Napster protocol in 1999 and create “OpenNap”. With OpenNap, anyone can run their own Napste server to implement connections to other people. If the only linked MP3 site is an informal decentralized file distribution, then OpenNap is an informal de centralization file search.

When the music industry wiped out Napster, many people turned to OpenNap and “Napigator”. Napigator runs on your computer and lets you choose to use that OpenNap server; when you choose a server, it will change your Napster client and use it all the time. If you want to run your own OpenNap server, you can deploy OpenNap software and send mail to the IP address of the Napigator server. A centralization list of a OpenNap server is manually stored in Napigator.

OpenNap is very short. RIAA just buried Napster, they began to shut down the popular OpenNap server, the number of users fell 80 percent in the past 6 months.

Walk on the edge of the law to the center: Kazaa

 To the center of the history of Technology

Kazaa has become one of the most popular substitutes for the next generation of Napster

 

The next generation of file sharing protocols is built on the basis of a careful study of the literal meaning of the law. Because Napster can filter its own centralization search (and thus be convicted), Kazaa centralization the search.

 

The Kazaa protocol (“FastTrack”) has a “hybrid architecture”. In general, this means that some machines in the network are more important than other machines, and these machines are like servers. If the user’s computer has a high-speed network connection and sufficient storage space, it will be automatically upgraded to “super node.”

 

And many Kazaa users will connect to these super nodes. These super nodes follow the files shared by each user, handle their search requests, and other jobs. A super node is also connected to other super nodes, so the search requests are quickly checked between different supernodes.

 

 To the center of the history of Technology

The super node of Kazaa, from Understanding Kazaa”

By allowing anyone operating in the search server, OpenNap distributed search center responsibility, distributed storage of MP3 file containing only like MP3 a link to the website by containing the copyright as a way to spread the responsibility. But as Napster will contain only detour scheme MP3 links the formal agreement, Kazaa will we see from the roundabout method of OpenNap and Napigator in the formal.

In the Napster die later, many popular file sharing applications using the hybrid architecture, including Limewire, Kazaa, eDonkey and so on. This wave to the center of the trend to be charged, based on the Kazaa protocol to establish the company in the United States Supreme Court became a legal precedent. But Kazaa himself was killed in an Australian court, and the court ruled that Kazaa could install a filter on the client side but chose not to do so.

“Even if there is no so-called central server, the accused can still use other measures, but these measures that can be used to prevent customer rights from being infringed by Kazaa users are not used.”

Universal Music Australia V Sharman License Holdings at 236

The American court made a similar decision on Limewire, pointing out that they could have added a client-side copyright filter but disable it by default, requiring the user to open it in the preferences panel:

“In May 2006, LimeWire implemented an optional, hash based content filter. Hash – based filters can identify whether electronic files contain copyrighted content and prevent users from downloading them. However, the default setting of the hash filter for LimeWire is closed, which means that LimeWire is fully capable of setting this option to open and exerting an impact on the file transfer records on the user’s computer. LimeWire can turn the hash filter into a mandatory option, or by default, so that the user’s file sharing activity is affected by the filtering process, unless the user stops the filter.

Arista Records LLC v. Lime Group LLC

In order to apply the prosecution of Kazaa of this generation, the Supreme Court ruled that if the file sharing company “guide” infringement, they will be held to have legal responsibility. For example, if a company wants to advertise for former Napster users, said they could use the company’s software to download copyrighted music, so it can be used as evidence in court, sued the company to benefit from copyright infringement behavior.

With the introduction of “two levels of legal liability induced”, a large number of file sharing company were killed, including Limewire and eDonkey.

The new regulations clearly:

L if someone can use your software to search copyrighted content, Hollywood has the right to require you to install copyright filters;

L if the company will file sharing their products as a tool for copyright infringement promotion, the company will be liable for any infringement prosecution of their occurrence center in the agreement.

Again, these rules have strongly promoted the evolution to the center of the. Before we see to the center of the file sharing protocol with Napster rules as template. Kazaa to die, you can see hundreds of file sharing companies already exist in different design schemes in the market. And next to the center of the wave depends on the surviving in the induction of rules of the Supreme Court’s ruling after the company, rather than the birth of a new company.

BitTorrent: continuous Road

And other file sharing company, BitTorrent company and its founder accused infringement.

The founder of BitTorrent, Bram Cohen, looks only interested in the use of no copyright infringement, and has published all the right words about copyright infringement – he insisted so that he could only be considered sincere.

BitTorrent: The Next Main Event (2005)

BitTorrent is a legal technological innovation. When many people download files at the same time, the central solution will be slow, but BitTorrent will be faster. Twitter and Facebook also use the technology because of its advantages.

Unlike Kazaa and eDonkey, the BitTorrent protocol is free and open source from the beginning. Hundreds of thousands of BitTorrent customers have emerged from all corners of the world, from independent companies to open source communities.

The key is that the BitTorrent protocol has nothing to do with the content of the search, which means that the BitTorrent client is only a searcher for fast downloading rather than a tort. The BitTorrent protocol outsourced the file discovery to a Torrent search engine such as Pirate Bay, and Pirate Bay hosted a Torrent file that anyone could download, and then opened it in a separate client.

Around 2005, BitTorrent replaced Kazaa as the top protocol for P2P file sharing. The BitTorrent file is very simple at the beginning, specifying which files torrent will download, how to split the files into smaller fragments, and a single BitTorrent tracker that the client should connect to, to find people who are uploading and downloading the same data.

Hollywood has never pursued BitTorrent, like Napster, LimeWire, Kazaa and other companies. BitTorrent just creates an agreement, then distributes its own client, and runs the content search engine. Of course, the client does not have a search function, and the BitTorrent official search engine respects the copyright and will delete the infringed file. And it’s hard to say that BitTorrent is created for profit, because Bram Cohen gives the protocol completely open source and gives free to the client.

“I want to do something more meaningful,” Bram said. And, once he has completed a project, he will immediately turn to a new project; it is impossible for him to start a company with his own project.

Torrential Reign from Fortune (2005)

Kazaa after the collapse of the public’s attention turned to the BitTorrent, public policy experts believe that BitTorrent might be able to win the final victory.

BitTorrent is a try… Its founder Bram Cohen seems only to use non infringement of interest — and very dedicated to emphasize this point, so that people can believe he is sincere… BitTorrent looks like a very clear example: there is a dual purpose technology should be induced through the testing of the Supreme court.

BitTorrent: The Next Main Event (2005)

Judicial attention has shifted to the agreement from the creator of the torrent search engine and tracker on. When the Hollywood with the threat of litigation, hundreds of websites have forced offline Torrent. As the judicial system sharing agreement legal proceedings makes BitTorrent as emerge on a generation of file lawsuits against the BitTorrent website also reveals the firm belief which team. Although there are hundreds of websites fell, but Demonoid, isoHunt, Pirate and Bay successfully survived more than ten years. Pirate Bay even today is still running.

The legal action against the BitTorrent ecosystem also shows us how the evolution of the BitTorrent protocol is. Like the Pirate Bay website has also experienced changes in their own internal technology, according to the judicial system requirements continue to improve the operation mode.

Today’s BitTorrent

 To the center of the history of Technology

Separation of concerns: uTorrent and the Pirate Bay

When the large BitTorrent site has been shut down, it will hurt the community. In the early days, as long as you download a torrent file from the Pirate Bay, your client will only connect and Pirate Bay torrent tracker. If their servers are offline, all metadata about the file (title, hash, file name) will be offline, and the torrent client will no longer know how to find other peers with the same torrent information.

Every block in the BitTorrent ecosystem has been changed to avoid the attention of the judicial system. Complete centralization is never a goal; on the contrary, it is really important that the change of technology makes it difficult for the law to cause more damage to the network.

The BitTorrent file adds “Multitracker” support, and the pirate bay also stops running its own torrent tracker; today, if you download torrent from the Pirate Bay, you will notice that the trackers are run by third parties, and these third parties seem to be often private nonprofit organizations.

 A brief history of de centralization

Pay attention to the fields beginning with TR, each of the UDP links is a third party tracker

This change contains a lot of legal flexibility. Even if these trackers do not need to make too much effort to be attacked or removed individually, there are still five of each torrent. If the law enforcement authorities want to stop the infringement by closing the torrent tracker, they still have to do five shutdown immediately to ensure that the torrent is downline. These trackers are not easy to shut down! For example, Coppersurfer.tk is a non-profit organization in Holland, which makes it harder for them to be prosecuted because they run these trackers just for good, in fact they have to pay their own money.

Coppersurfer operators do not think that a non-profit service that doesn’t even have a web site can be considered an electric business

Top Torrent Tracker Knocked Offline Over “Infringing Hashes”

By using the third – party tracker, the Pirate Bay is also more aggressive in court, because the court can’t claim that the Pirate Bay is helping users to look for other peer users to download.

Later, the Pirate Bay switched from the managed torrent file to only providing “magnetic link”. The magnetic link is basically a simple identifier. The torrent client can use it to discover the remaining information, such as the title, the file, or the content in the torrent file. This change has also reduced the value of the shutdown of the Pirate Bay, because the metadata of the torrent file is now completely centralization.

Is a big step towards the magnetic link to the center, it uses the distributed hash table (DHT) “(torrent system used by the client to parse the torrent file information from the magnetic identifier) and peer exchange (PEX)” (allows the client peer user found other share the same seed file). This is an important milepost on the Pirate Bay’s founder.

Distributed hash table (with PEX) in the center of the service under the condition of no efficient way to find P2P download party. If you run uTorrent, you may have noticed the column of the tracker in your Torrent file, the peer switching (PEX) line often reports that many people are sharing these files, usually more than your tracker! And all this is done without any centralization service! We think this is the future. It provides a faster and more stable service for the user, because it does not need to rely on any centralization of the facility.

Worlds most resilient tracking from The Pirate Bay Blog

The Pirate Bay’s Torrent also includes a centralization tracker, but this is to make downloading faster. The BitTorrent tracker is no longer the center node fails, they are to the center of the facility, and for reasons of convenience on this, add a layer of center.

The founder of the Pirate Bay is crazy. They spent more than ten years by the difference between technology and international law so that they maintain the survival of search engine. They share their information on the server deployment in 2012:

The Pirate Bay is currently deployed in two countries, if a cloud service provider interrupted our service, we only need to buy a new virtual server from other suppliers. The load balancer and the transmission router is still by the Pirate Bay control and operation, which allows us to hide the location of cloud service providers. The service provider does not know that they are providing services to the pirate bay. In the worst case, the pirate bay also lost the load balancer and transmission router. All the important data is backed up in the external virtual machine, and these data can be re installed cloud hosting service provider anywhere in the world on the server. They also have to move quickly, and if the server and the load balancer lose their connection for more than eight hours, they will automatically shut down. When the server is started again, only the person who knows the encrypted password has access. “

Pirate Bay Moves to The Cloud, Becomes Raid-Proof by TorrentFreak

Basically, even temporarily shut down the Pirate Bay, the law enforcement departments need to raid distribution in two different countries in the cloud computing company. In order to seize the essence of data server, they will carry out legal raids in third countries, and these only through two times before the raid in order that the third goal in where. If any raid two times before the machine in the line, in other countries or regions of the server will shut down, so even being caught is useless.

In addition, the Pirate Bay has filed all their Torrent (anyone can download these files). If after a raid orchestrated happened, and successfully caught all the Pirate Bay server will also delete backup, the public can still recover all the past year seed Torrent.

The Pirate Bay has solved the Internet service provider (ISP) level and the domain name has been revoked shielding problem. If you search for “Pirate Bay proxy”, you can find a lot of websites are listed to login the Pirate Bay domain, shielding these domain names can bypass the Internet service provider and the conventional domain shielded (thepiratebay.org)

 To the center of the history of Technology

The Pirate Bay

BitTorrent has passed the search engine to an organization like the Pirate Bay to deal with lawsuits that escaped the law. It is these judicial actions that, in turn, have promoted the continuous evolution of the BitTorrent agreement and the privacy technology of the Pirate Bay.

From the centralization of MP3 to the modern BitTorrent ecosystem, such a path is a case study, which is the largest ever centralization movement in history. Napster has eighty million users at its peak. In 2007, BitTorret accounted for about sixty percent of the world’s network traffic. From 1997 to 2007, users have always experienced the best service to the users, and in comparison, the degree of centralization is just enough.

Follow the pace of the law

Napster didn’t really pay attention to the law, but it seems that Kazaa and BitTorrent did have enough attention to legal. The latter two are far away from the center of the content to let Napster search engine failure. Kazaa and many others believe that their search for centralization is evidence that they can prove that they can’t actively review content search and file transfer. BitTorrent is even more extreme, allowing anyone to run file search. You can even imagine their arguments: “our file search is completely legal, illegal is the Pirate Bay!”

When BitTorrent threw the hot potato to the Torrent search engine to get a wheezing opportunity, the community once again let the agreement evolve. Single seed tracker, distributed hash table, and the introduction of peer-to-peer switching can be considered as an effective response to shutdown central search engines and trackers.

If we follow the footsteps of legal proceedings outside BitTorrent and enter the history of the Pirate Bay, we can further notice these informal centralization, such as the privacy architecture of the thepiratebayproxylist.net and the Pirate Bay servers, which are designed to cope with the raid on the server.

Can be summed up as to the center of the history of success: “we are not allowed to do X, but I bet if we do Y, we get away.”

Rebecca Giblin perfectly describes this phenomenon:

“There is a gap between the reality of the physical world assumption and P2P software development… (the physical world and the world of software division)… Cause gap appeared is that people pay no attention to the different characteristics between the software code and software development with the physical world or predecessors, traditional physical world assumption is not always established in the field of software development. So in the face of those who really understand the difference between the two, the law has been used and not necessarily used for useful purposes. “

Code Wars: 10 Years of P2P Software Litigation by Rebecca Giblin

The copyright law is based on a series of cases, which can be summarized as: “the owner of the business can supervise and monitor their own property to be harms by the tort.” But when the property is not owned by anyone, the law will not know how to handle, which is using Kazaa vulnerabilities. The Supreme Court set a precedent, precedent for this hypothesis: to create and sell possible copyright products will spend a lot of money. Based on these, the court also assumes that the massive copyright infringement tools only when there is a profit will be created.

The copyright law for decades are based on “like Bram Cohen does not exist” hypothesis. Bram built a can be used for mass tort agreement, and the main cost of his time and energy. He didn’t even want to create a company, but rather directly to the agreement free for all. The search to the center of the Kazaa agreement in violation of this assumption: “some people will intervene and prevent infringement”, and those based on the Kazaa protocol can take advantage of it, the way to win the high court.

If we look at the other to the center of the technical success, we will find a similar pattern. The United States government through a variety of anti money laundering requirements and litigation, get rid of electronic gold (a center of digital currency). After the “free dollar” (a private centralization of the real currency) gained a certain popularity, the US printing and Justice Department will kill it. As a result, bitcoin mining will centralization of the currency issue and transaction process, and the government can not directly implement anti money laundering control in dealing with the transaction, nor can it close the system itself.

Informal centralization foreshadowed the birth of a formal agreement

In the early stages of music sharing, the emergence of informal and manual processes, which indicates that later there will be technological innovation of automation.

When music lovers realize they cannot store music directly on the site, containing only the linked sites appeared. When the center of the Napster server was shut down, many people began to substitute for the center server. Hyperlink music blog and OpenNap/Napigator and Napster and to circumvent the law, after Kazaa also used the same way to circumvent the law.

We see that every successful stage to the center of the stands with the minimum to the center to enable the system to survive.

L “we are not allowed to directly store the MP3 file? Let the other people save, let’s put a link. “

L “the server that stops the Napster in Hollywood? So, if anyone can run the server? “

From a certain angle, informal stage it seems that people can think out of the most lazy solution. If we can get other people then we only need to update links, why to study harder to the center of the store? If we can let the person directly run the server, and allow users to choose who to run, why go to the research field of distributed computing is still unsolved problem to the center of the fuzzy search?

In fact, these seemingly lazy circuitous strategies have paved the way for later successful agreements, the fact that shows us the evolution of centralization: centralization of trusteeship, Napster – Kazaa – BitTorrent. Using a legally feasible scheme to minimize the degree of centralization to maintain the system’s operation. The reason why they can work is that centralization is not a product, but a means of survival.

Many people go further to the center and anonymous, but these are not necessary, because they are just a small part of extreme privacy people is important. If it is not in order to survive, to the center is a weakness, not strength.

In many ways, 2005 BitTorrent more than Kazaa center, but because of the former to the center of the file transfer and content search outsourcing, which makes it more resilient than Kazaa, Kazaa to the center of the search at the protocol level.

Let judicial action lose its motivation

In order to break away from the concepts such as “file hosting” and “content search”, file sharing companies have developed a centralization technology, but strategic rotation with legal assumptions is only one of the many roles of technology. Supporting multiple trackers in each torrent file is also the weakest form of de centralization. Compared to using these techniques, we may regard it as a kind of strategy to keep torrent online.

Even if there is no distributed hash table, let five tracers in each torrent, there are a lot of redundancy, to ensure that the Pirate Bay stay online download. Rebecca Giblin, a BitTorrent client is why Hollywood did not like before that to Kazaa BitTorrent for the reasons of censorship.

The Pirate Bay in order to ensure the BitTorrent search engine can be used to pay a lot, including the use of magnetic link to the center of this technology. How can we explain that they don’t own operation but on this tracker selection run by a non-profit organization tracker? And they will be split into several parts of the server and distributed in different countries? These were not really to the center, but their clever use of technology, it also allows more flexibility in the Pirate Bay in front of the law.

Action: the key to the center of the

The Bram Cohen BitTorrent protocol will be complimentary to all people. But he didn’t have to do this, Kazaa is very successfully mastered their ownership to the center of the agreement. The founder of the Pirate Bay, in order to make their products online, through difficulties and dangers, they even from this prison. However, I do not know why, even if the Internet service provider level blocked, they still in operation today.

De centralization and other technical gimmick help keep the technology persistent online, and if they are centralization, they will not last. However, this does not mean that they can solve the problem completely.

Instead, the centralization technology relies on a group of activist to achieve a technical vision. Bram through his open source protocol to play this role, which limits his ability to profit from the agreement, but also created even kill his client also can not stop the use of BitTorrent scene, all this has far-reaching significance.

The Pirate Bay is a more prominent example of their activism, and Piratbyr n anti copyright is closely related to the mission. Indeed, in addition to the Pirate Bay, there is a private torrent tracker and other public choice, but no one has yet done continuous and elastic regardless of how to still cost their services like the pirate bay.

Go to the center of technology can not ignore the law, acts recklessly. To the center is a decentralized and risk reduction strategies, especially for those responsible for the operation of the system in the most sensitive part of the activists who. We see that Tor is the same, the risk involved in Tor focused on the exit node, which may cause legal unwelcome attention. If there is no action, those to the center of the beautiful technology will not be used in the real world.

The bigger picture

Around the blockchain hype to attract a large number of people to participate in the movement to the center of the more massive in. But the national security agency and the Facebook makes the online privacy becomes a hot topic, people interested in encouraging the blockchain remains committed to promoting the complex ecosystem and to the center of the encryption technology, these tried to help us recover seems to lose the right.

From the view of the history of file sharing, pure technology to the center seems to be just a tool for larger picture. What’s really important is that everyone can create the relative use of technology. Centralization helps other technologies use loopholes explained by legal provisions to escape the execution of the law.

The siblings to the center are as follows:

L the skills of utilizing national legal differences. The Pirate Bay is a reason in sweden.

The separation of l enterprise structure and technical responsibility. To run as a nonprofit organization of pure torrent tracker means they are more difficult to kill, because the law focused on those criminals who profit by tort.

L is open source and widely copied to the center of the technical improvement means. The BitTorrent community is usually the improved scheme was put forward and discussed openly. Open source BitTorrent client means that the company does not really shut down BitTorrent to BitTorrent by what the essence of influence.

The creative use of technology by l will also make the judicial system less effective. The Pirate Bay spread its servers in many countries, making it less effective.

Whether you are building a block chain company or creating a centralization protocol, you can learn something from this historical point of view. Ask yourself, what are the unreasonable restrictions on people in the centralization system? If you are careful, you may find that people are using informal strategies to bypass the rules today, and it is these strategies that may be incorporated into the formal agreement of the future.

De centralization may be a powerful weapon, but it is not only difficult to deploy if it does not match the legal strategy, and it may be counterproductive. Unless your target blurred, or to the center of excessive use is not perfect. The most popular file sharing application is never the most to the center of the. Only rely on to the center is not enough, in the long run, the actors will take huge risks seems to be necessary.

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