A purse “mnemonic words” do you want to know is this

With my wallet users know, in the use of the wallet before will let you backup 12 words. Operation is not allowed during the backup, and continues to emphasize the 12 words is very important, the best use of physical backup, the backup side do not have any people.

For ordinary users, if only to emphasize the importance of their mnemonic conclusion, without telling the reason behind it is very difficult to arouse the underlying power of people, probably a few days to forget the importance of mnemonic words (Tracy has seen a lot in the group calling themselves because the mnemonic loss caused by the bankruptcy of the cup).

As ambassador cheetah blockchain, today small leopard will come and talk to help remember the words and the story behind it.

Mnemonic word English is Menonic, in most people’s minds, mnemonic word = private key is to import the wallet tool, actually exactly mnemonic words than the private key, then, to help remember the word in the end is come from, a mnemonic word in the end what is the use?

Multi account demand

Let’s get a real life example of an analogy, generally speaking, our presence will have a lot of money in the bank account, some accounts to buy pancake fruit is used to change the account, some Corporate Banking Services accounts, some deposit assets account. These accounts only need a card you can handle, we can log in online banking account with a lot of ID card, if the bank card is lost, can also go through by ID. In real life, the ID card is very important.

The digital currency in the world, the truth is the same, in order to facilitate business, we usually want to have multiple accounts, to meet the different needs of the scene. If the accounts are created each time a private key is generated in the chain, it is like for each bank card to the memory of a long list of bank card number as anti humanity.

To reduce the probability of error

As everyone knows, in the world, as long as the private key, you can unlock the account, but generally the private key is composed of a long string of 64 bits, if we want to create 100 accounts, then we have to remember 100 private keys, record and save the cost is very large, moreover, in the process of recording mass the private key, may also appear on the address and private key does not match the problem, sum up or record the wrong letter be negligent, and so on, and the probability of error is very high, because this digital currency “only the private key does not recognize people” features, these small errors are likely to result in assets can not be recovered.

The protection of privacy

Because of the block chain chain of public public property, all transfer chain records of anyone can be found, if the same account associated with the income and expenditure is too much, we can eventually work out some clues to some of you and give up the transaction, so, in order to consider a lot of privacy, privacy of our business usually create a new account for the transaction.

Smart developers in order to solve the above problems, the proposed Bip39 protocol. The Bip39 protocol is the full name of Bitcoin protocol, was originally proposed by the bitcoin community developers, later recognized by the other main block chain project, and then become the industry consensus and norms.

The core of BIP39 protocol is composed of 12 words to determine their own accounts, 12 words will generate large seed, select a number from 256 in 2, due to a number of randomly generated is very large, so don’t worry about 12 words generated will be repeated.

12 a word generation account is fixed, 12 words get you can create as many private key, public key and address.

Use the formula to express the relationship between them, can be written in the following form:

The private key algorithm 1 = (mnemonic)

Public key algorithm = 2 (private key)

The public key hash algorithm (public key) = 3

Address = 4 (public key algorithm Hashi)

So, the address = 4 algorithm (algorithm 3 (algorithm 2 (algorithm 1 (mnemonic))))

Of course, 1, 2, 3, algorithm 4 is open algorithm.

The cryptographic assurance, word order and content generation is not likely to repeat, the mnemonic word, we can generate any public chain address, how much the address can generate the number.

You can through the https://iancoleman.io/bip39/ generated mnemonic mnemonic words or view the corresponding private key, public key and address.

The BIP39 protocol is almost all public support chain.

Small leopard leopard with private Matemask mnemonic word did an experiment:

As you can see, remember the words created through my Matemask account address, website address is generated and the even order is as like as two peas, highly consistent.


Technical point of view to understand mnemonic words

From a technical point of view, BIP39 is a sequence of words memorizing words by 12, through the PBKDF2 and HMAC-SHA512 functions to create a random seed as the seeds of BIP32 (usually 16 hexadecimal).

Compared to the BIP32 protocol, we can see that a more friendly backup:

//BIP32 random number seed


//BIP39 mnemonic seed

Candy Maple cake sugar pudding Cream Honey rich smooth crumble sweet treat


Use a mnemonic word as the seed actually consists of 2 parts: mnemonic word generation and mnemonic words derived from a random seed.

Generation of mnemonic words

Mnemonic word generation process is like this: Mr. 128 a bit random number, plus a check on the random number 4, get a number of 132, and then press 11 to make each segment, there are 12 binary number, and then use the word table to check each number the definition of BIP39, so as to get 12 mnemonic words, this process is illustrated as follows:


Mnemonic words derived from seed

This process uses a key tension (Key stretching) function is used to enhance the security of weak keys, PBKDF2 is a key algorithm commonly used in drawing.
The basic principle of PBKDF2 is through a random function (for example, the HMAC function) mnemonic word plaintext and salt values as input parameters, and then repeat the operation eventually produce a longer (512) key seed. The seed and then build a deterministic wallet and derives its key.
Key stretching function takes two parameters: the mnemonic and salt. Salt can increase the difficulty of brute force. Salt by the constant string “mnemonic” and an optional password, pay attention to the use of different passwords, then stretching function produces a different seed in the use of the same mnemonic conditions, the process diagram under:

Mnemonic to promote the popularity of the blockchain

A mnemonic word, any transaction, we can create a new account, the money inside the account can also be free transfer.

In the world, only need to remember 12 simple mnemonic words, indirectly remember all the assets on the block chain, just like real life identity as convenient and efficient.

A mnemonic word, greatly reducing the cost of ordinary users, from the experience is very friendly to the user, it pulled into the block chain and the general public distance, but also to meet the privacy problem of high-end users. It can be said that the BIP39 protocol greatly promoted the popularization of the blockchain.

Some may say, “I hate English ah, let me remember 12 English words, is to be my life!”

For this part of the user first I do not comment, but the smart developers would think of this, BIP39 protocol is currently supported by several major languages, English, Japanese, Spanish, Korean, French, of course Chinese, so we can use the 12 Chinese characters as mnemonic words.

Even if 12 Chinese characters can’t remember it, then I can only say that the world is a donor, block chain with you no chance, find a good man to marry.

Of course, everything has two sides, although the mnemonic word brings a lot of convenience, but also the birth of the additional security risks, that is once the 12 word leaked, or hackers to obtain, mnemonic is not encrypted in any private key. Are you a mnemonic word, can not easily take away your assets control.

Give you a few suggestions here:

(1) mnemonic word is your digital world’s lifeblood, killing all can’t tell anyone.

(2) must be repeatedly verified backup mnemonic word is correct, once the wrong one or two letters, to find the correct subsequent mnemonic word will bring great difficulties.

(3) the mnemonic word is best memory with the human brain, really afraid to forget, backed up with the physical way, after a good backup, be sure to keep (any networked storage devices do not use).

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