Decentraland architecture introduction


Reporter: pencil leadn

Decentraland is a virtual reality platform built on the etherfront, allowing users to create, experience content and apply, and profit. To some extent, you can interpret it as a “simulated life” or “my world” on the chain. This article describes how the world is structured.n
nDecentraland’s agreement is divided into the following three layers:n
nn1) Consensus layer tracks territory ownership and territoryn
n2) The territorial content layer uses a decentralized distributed system to download assetsn
n3) real-time layer: so that the user world visitors can communicate with each othern
nnTerritory ownership is based on the consensus level. At this level, the territory content will be referenced by the hash value of the file content. According to the reference, the user can download content from the bitstream or IPFS. The downloaded file contains a description of the elements, textures, sounds, and other elements that render the scene. In addition to this, the file also includes the site of the aggregated server, which can be used to coordinate the simultaneous exchange of P2P users. Figure 3 shows the implementation steps of Decentraland users, in a central way to provide users with a shared virtual world experience.n

nFirst, the consensus layer:n
nDecentraland maintains the land title book in the virtual world through the ethercom smart contract. We call these irreplaceable digital assets “territory”: each territory has a unique (x, y) coordinates, a territorial owner and a description of the content description file (which can be used to encode the territory of all who want to provide content). Decentraland users will be connected with the ethernet network, in a timely manner to obtain the status of the territory of intelligent contract updates.n
nThe territory needs to be purchased using MANA tokens. This is a replaceable ERC20 token, with a fixed supply. MANA token is a substitute for the cost of claiming territorial ownership. The territorial contract has a destruction function, which can create new entries on the territory registration by destroying MANA tokens. The new territory must be close to the territory that has been claimed.n
nSecond, the content distribution layer:n
nDecentraland uses a decentralized storage system to distribute what is needed to render the virtual world. Each piece of land that needs to be presented will have a reference to the description of the contents of the parcel, which can be retrieved through an intelligent contract. The current solution is to store magnetic links for each block, using the bitstreams that are actually tested and the Kademlia DHT network. But with the IPFS10 technology continues to mature, it provides a better solution.n
nThis decentralized distributed system allows Decentraland to work without any centralized server infrastructure. So, as long as the user distribution of content, will run the cost of the system can be benefited from other participants, the virtual world will continue to exist. Moreover, the system can also provide Decentraland with a strong ability to review the resistance, to eliminate the authority of the central authorities to change the rules or to prevent the user to participate in the power.n
nHowever, hosting these files and bandwidth for serving content can bring significant costs. At present, Decentraland P2P network users sowing content is out of goodwill, no compensation. But in the future, the cost of infrastructure can be paid through the use of Filecoin11 and other agreements. Until this technology really landed, small payments can be used to pay for service costs. At that time, Decentraland through the continued sale of MANA profits are enough to pay long-term operating costs.n
nThe description of the parcel will include a list of documents used to render the land, a list of services provided by a territory owner, and an entry point for coordinating the object and its behavior. This document must state:n
nnContent file:n
nA reference is made to the measurements surrounding the grid, texture, audio files, and other related content that is used to render the parcel. In this regard, the user will know what is required for the presentation of the plot, without having to issue the instructions.n
nnnScript entry point:n
nThe script system controls the location of the content in the parcel and its behavior. This allows applications and animations to appear in the parcel. The scripting system also needs to coordinate various behaviors, such as the positioning and activity of the object, the length and frequency of the sound play, and the interaction with the user.n
nnnP2P interactionn
nThis allows the user to connect to the server, and the server can automatically achieve the connection between users, coordination of location and posture and voice chat and messaging.n
nThird, real-time layer:n
nWith a domain owner or a third-party server, users can communicate with each other over a P2P connection. Without the need for a centric server, P2P connections can provide social interaction between users and applications that the domain owner wants to run in their own parcels. In order to coordinate the boot process of the P2P connection, the territory owner must provide a pooled server, otherwise the user can not see each other in their land.n
nThe maintenance of such a server can be the same as the content server incentives. When the lightweight protocol such as STUN12 can cover the functionality required by the server, the cost will become quite low. But for more advanced functions, such as multiple concurrent users between the voice exchange or network traversal services, etc., can be paid by small payment to pay the cost.n
nIn the Decentraland world, the user’s social experience will include avatars, other user targeting, voice chat, messaging, and interaction with the virtual environment. This requires different protocols to be coordinated, and these protocols will run on existing P2P solutions such as Federated VoIP or WebRTC13.n
nFourth, the payment channels:n
nA common public distributed HTLC network (such as a lightning network) will take at least a year to land, but the low-confidence, well-balanced channel is fast, low-cost, and can now be implemented. It is important to have two reasons: to achieve purchase behavior in a virtual world to motivate content servers and P2P servers to improve service quality.n
nToday, the major platforms have eased the inherent risk of credit card payments themselves: the user trusts the platform, while the untrusted application can protect their payment details. With the payment channel, the user can purchase directly to the developer without having to worry about identity theft.n
nSome of Decentraland’s infrastructure fees support small payments. Which includes the contents of hosting, providing content, running P2P protocol. The marginal cost of developing a developer in Decentraland is close to its actual cost because it is essentially commercialized. However, in order to allow future developers without access barriers, Decentraland will be MANA tokens (Decentraland tokens) sales revenue as the reward to provide these services.n
nThe next chapter will focus on the Decentraland tokens -MANA ​​and on behalf of the sale of shares, more news please pay attention to Decentraland Chinese community manager, WeChat: Crypto_communityn

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