Detailed! In addition to the lightning network, what can realize the block chain expansion?

From the current point of view, no matter what kind of technical solution is to find a balance between the “high efficiency” and “to the center” two, want to efficiency center, want to go to the center of safety. At present in everyone in the field of O (1) off-chain consensus algorithm (chain channel), sharding (chip), DAG (directed acyclic graph), multi-chain (Multi Chain) and so on, each algorithm has its characteristics and advantages, this paper will interpret this solution for horizontal expansion.

[chain] channel

The concept of off-chain from the bitcoin community, put forward 2013 years to 12 months later, the formation of our familiar chain chain system, namely the side chain. Bitcoin block has been in operation in case of an error, the amount of money involved is too big. This is not allowed. In this case, the birth of the side chain. Essentially, the side chain mechanism — a currency move in both blocks chain mechanism, which allows the assets between bitcoin block chain and other chain transfer. The number of transactions to reduce the core block chain.

The side chain bitcoin is including the recent hot lightning network, its operating mechanism is very simple: if A is going to B to 100BTC, then A must be opened to pay channels between B (State channel), and the first mortgage at least 100BTC. A mortgage, you can start to transfer B. A can send 1BTC to B today, tomorrow to give B 2BTC, it does not matter, anyway, is the Off-Chain transaction, does not charge any fees completely. Lightning is between A and B network to provide the payment channel, namely Off-Chain (chain) trading channel.

So, if A or B want to BTC out the balance, and stop and other transfer transaction, how to do? You need to pay off the channel between A and B, and the use of a series of agreements to liquidate the lightning network.

A summary of lightning network works:

The establishment of A. payment channel;

B. need a mortgage.

So the application of lightning network

A. capital frequent;

The amount of the transaction between the two sides of the mortgage amount is less than b..

For example the use of flash exchange network is especially appropriate funds to me to you, do not say first light speed, the cost of trading can save a lot of. If it is not what people contact, to trade, will be unstable across a number of state or channel to pass a big relay, the relay can have credibility, might suddenly run away, so why don’t we continue to use Alipay happily? State channel there is a problem, said the deposit, if continued to send funds from one party to the other party, the deposit will be less and less, finally forced to shut down, this is a kind of unstable factors.

Finally, summarize the current problems of off-chain:

A. is the center of the relay;

B. online status instability problem;

C. mortgage assets.


Sharding also called Sharding, which first appeared in the field of database. At first, all the data on the server. Although different users access to different data, but only one server to provide services. So people think of ways to improve the most easy is: different data on a different server, at the same time, access to different data from different servers will provide services, so as to break through the single node I/O data server capacity constraints. In short, the core idea is divide and rule slice.

Slice the etheric Fang, is simply to block chain network is divided into several smaller components can handle the transaction network, in order to achieve the second payment system processing thousands of transactions.

Set a block chain, there are one hundred different universes in this block chain system, each universe is an independent space account. The user can have an account in a universe, the user initiated transactions will affect transactions related to the universe. Is not a deja vu? Is not sound and the side chain like? Yes, if the side chain is through the “external grafted to the main chain, the slice is the backbone” internal partition “, obviously the latter is more difficult to achieve than the former complex! So many people think that God make things complicated V…… Even the slice will sacrifice some efficiency “to the center”. Incidentally, EOS also has a slice, called Region.

Slicing is a very exciting blockchain, it let us see the hope, it can be affected in a very small degree of transparency to the centre and solve the problem of expanding. However, there is no doubt that the slicing technique, especially the state slice is very difficult at the design level and implementation level. This is the etheric Fang always want to go without reason to go through this road.

[Multi Chain]

Multi chain, abandoned the traditional scheme of a chain of cure all “, the” new scheme of Multi Chain divide and rule “re designed a guarantee for each contract to the normal operation of the chain. This greatly simplifies the structure innovation, reduce the pressure of data processing, to ensure that a chain traffic surge will not affect the efficiency of other chain, any business in the chain will not receive other business interference, the effective realization of resource isolation.

Project chain representatives have COSMOS, EKT, Polkadot etc..

The EKT multi chain technology, the central idea of EKT is to design a mechanism of the community, so that developers can easily develop a DAPP, the other to the EKT to handle. EKT provides a mechanism underlying the chain block, block chain of other projects can be easily the backbone of EKT code based on the deployment of a set of their own backbone. Block chain project compiled on the EKT will not need to worry too much about security issues, because each interface is very simple and deployed in many parallel backbone and operation. When the main chain can be flexibly deployed to issue their own tokens and the selection of backbone consensus algorithm. The newly deployed backbone can be added to the general EKT integral whole ecosystem, shared EKT ecological resources users, and EKT tokens can also coins and tokens of other backbone exchange and circulation.

In EKT, the mechanism of using the private key encryption and routing strategy to achieve the Byzantine fault tolerant, each node of the EKT public key chain are open. This is a balance between efficiency and safety and to the center of the solution. Token is generally defined as an intelligent contract, but if it becomes a defining event in advance of the “object”, the “object” can have their parameters (such as total, consensus mechanism etc.), security will bring a better experience. Take the address of the token can have two types: ordinary user address and address the contract, the contract after receiving the token address to perform non Turing complete language can be a simple contract, state calculation and token transfer. EKT separate Token and DApp chains, in the future can largely avoid the slice before mentioned, and the trouble offchain.


DAG is a directed acyclic graph (Directed Acyclic Graph): This is a kind of vertices and edges of the graph structure. It can guarantee from a vertex along some edge forward (to), but can never return to the origin (ring). In the IOTA project, referred to Tangle (NFT) a data structure of DAG, the real sense, IOTA has not belong to “block chain”, you can understand if bitcoin, Fang is the use of Ethernet data structure is BlockChain, and the number of IOTA according to the underlying structure is DAG but, it still belongs to the “center” category.

Directed acyclic graph (Direct Acyclic or Graph DAG) is one of the hot block chain project in recent years. Many industry insiders believe that this technology has the potential to solve the problem of expansion block chain at all, so the project has a high heat. However, due to its high technical threshold and the difficulty of development, block chain project using the technology is still a minority in the country is very rare.

The traditional structure of the linear block chain, in the maintenance of multi center safety and good condition, at the bottom of a capacity bottleneck problem fundamentally. So the block chain project expansion scheme, a multi center is at the expense of the accounting method for the whole chain of the throughput capacity of a slice is dependent on the side chain, and two layer (Layer 2) technology to deal with small transactions. To obtain the fundamental underlying chain efficiency better, need to be taken with a completely different architecture. A potential challenger to DAG is more promising. DAG compared with the traditional linear block chain advantage is very obvious, mainly lies in the scalability and transaction throughput.


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