Author: Yuki, Rui capital managing director
Time: December 10, 2018
In 2017, the blockchain accompanied by soaring like bamboo shoots after a spring rain technology such as encrypted digital currency together broke into public view. People lamented the surprising rise of encryption currency at the same time, also realized that the market expected, not just virtual financial CBBC brings enthusiasm. The origin back to support bitcoin belief — block chain technology, based on the type of technical support to the development of the Internet, the world science and technology extension limit, to solve these problems is to block the chain continued to mature a milepost.
The creation of the World Wide Web distributed, are considered to be the key to support the next stage of the internet. But when we look to the decentralized Internet novel, data storage is an important factor, we cannot ignore the. Artificial intelligence (AI), Networking (IoT), or even block chain itself, are challenging the current data storage boundary. Tens of thousands of connected devices, more and more business data sharing needs, personalized applications are increasing the demand for storage.
This paper briefly introduced the development of the global cloud storage market, block chain + compare the market to famous project center cloud storage technology, while the development of the block chain market outlook, welcome correction and discussion.
The origin of cloud storage
Cloud storage (Cloud Storage) from the cloud computing (Cloud Computing) on the rise, it is based on the distributed data system and Internet technology, through virtualization, distributed technology, cluster application, network technology, load balancing technology, will be scattered in different places in a large number of storage devices through software collection, storage network equipment and docking together to provide access to data storage and business functions, customers through public access interface, access network and client access storage resources, ensure the safety of data, and save storage space.
The application of cloud storage in response to a need from the national security defense development, the emergence of such technology, brings a new innovation for the development of the storage industry, for many industries to support the upgrading of. Compared with the traditional means of storage, cloud storage can easily break through a storage area network (Storage Area Network) or NAS (Network Attached Storage) the performance bottleneck, realize linear performance and capacity expansion. It can be said that the emergence of cloud storage, and provide an important technical basis for many of the comprehensive development of information technology.
The competition pattern of cloud storage
In the cloud computing industry chain, IaaS, PaaS and SaaS are covered storage function. The IaaS block storage, PaaS cloud storage for general object storage, pay more attention to the storage capacity of the release of SaaS cloud storage is file storage. IaaS cloud storage in general is the underlying basis of cloud storage SaaS. At present, IaaS and PaaS class cloud storage by industry giants led some entrepreneurs with PaaS cloud storage; SaaS class cloud storage enterprise more, no oligarch enterprises appear.
Figure 1 cloud storage competition
Cloud storage market rapid development, market prospects
With a large area of the rapid development of communications technology and the popularity of smart mobile devices, global data showing explosive growth, the rapid market of data storage requirements. In 2017 the global mobile data traffic reached 10.74EB, an increase of 55.40%, of which mobile data traffic intelligent mobile phone and tablet computer accounted for nearly 90% of global mobile data traffic. In 2017, the global intelligent mobile phone mobile data traffic 8.90EB, an increase of 58.6%; the global tablet computer mobile data traffic 562.55PB, an increase of 68.7%. According to statistics, in 2016 the total global data 12ZB, is expected in 2020 will reach 44ZB. It is not difficult to find, the global amount of data will usher in the explosive growth period, extending cloud storage as cloud computing, is expected in the rapid development and the explosive growth of data traffic in the background.
Figure 2 the total global data 44ZB is expected to reach 2020 years
Source: IDC, card Hang Seng
Figure 3 global tablet computer intelligent mobile phone mobile data traffic and the rapid growth of mobile data traffic
Source: Wind, card Hang Seng
Figure 4 2017 global mobile data traffic grew 55.4%
Source: Wind, card Hang Seng
In addition, the cloud computing market growth also laid the tone for the growth of cloud storage construction. In 2016, the global cloud computing market size of $65 billion 480 million, the market size is expected in 2020 will reach $143 billion 530 million. As an important part of cloud computing, cloud storage can be predicted in the era of artificial intelligence and play an important role.
In addition to the rapid growth of market demand, according to Gartner statistics, the global external storage fell by 4.3% in 2017, the global cloud storage market size rose 26.3%. The growth of data traffic, reduce the external storage market and the global market size of cloud storage is rising, also shows that the future of cloud storage will gradually become the heart of data storage.
In 2017, the global cloud storage industry market size of $30 billion 700 million, is expected in 2022 will increase to $88 billion 910 million, the forecast period CAGR of 23.7% (CAGR). While the pace of development of China’s cloud storage market more rapidly, in 2017 China’s cloud storage market size of 8 billion 868 million yuan, an increase of 71.8%, according to the forecast of mobile information research center, 2018 year-on-year growth rate will rise to 72.8%, the market size of 15 billion 850 million yuan.
Figure 5 in recent years the global market size of cloud storage rising unit: USD
Source: Intek information, Markets and Markets, card Hang Seng, mobile information research center
It is estimated that up to 2020 years, the world will have more than 200 million units connected devices, these devices need a reasonable and accurate production, management, storage and retrieval of large amounts of data. However, in the traditional storage medium limited data access, data access has become a major bottleneck restricting the development of information technology. In the face of the rapid expansion of data storage, enterprises need to constantly purchase storage needs massive storage devices to meet growing. However, this does not seem to fundamentally solve the problem. First of all, the storage equipment procurement budget is more and more high, the majority of enterprises can not afford such a huge expenditure. Secondly, a large number of heterogeneous storage resources has greatly increased the complexity of storage management, easy to cause the waste of storage resources and utilization efficiency is not high. Compared to the traditional storage mode, cloud storage is easy to expansion and management, and the price is low.
Figure 6 cloud storage can help companies save storage costs early
Source: card Hang Seng
The advantages of cloud storage center
The storage capacity compared to the traditional, cloud storage architecture is used in parallel expansion mode, i.e. when customers need to increase capacity, according to the demand of purchasing new storage server, the expansion link without any restrictions.
The use of cloud storage can according to the customer’s actual needs of purchasing and leasing, can effectively reduce the enterprises and individuals the actual cost of the device, without additional hardware equipment and specialized personnel responsible for the management and maintenance, reduce operating costs.
Cloud storage data and save the file on a different server, to avoid the damage caused by a single hardware data is not available. If the hardware system fails, the server will automatically adjust the instruction to another server, continue to provide guaranteed service.
The disadvantage of cloud storage center
Although the traditional cloud storage scheme is convenient to manage, expansion, cost savings and other advantages, but the global background of the running mechanism of itself a major data breach in the centralized data storage center, data on business dependence leads to the massive data stored in a centralized database vulnerable, still pose a potential risk of hitherto unknown the.
The cloud server security maintenance can not be guaranteed
With the development of the iterative process, the practical application of cloud storage technology in its investment in data security, the creation of the computer technology factors early on computer expert thinking, in the development of cloud storage system has been paid more and more attention. On the one hand, node crashes or external attacks can lead to incomplete data; on the other hand, when the data is incomplete, because the cloud service provider deliberately concealed or other factors, the user can not timely notice that data changes.
In August 2018, Tencent has been discovered “cloud data loss event, the event originated in the single copy of the data due to disk silent mistake two times, not standardized operation plus the data migration process, resulting in the failure of three copies of the security mechanism of cloud disk, and eventually lead to customer data integrity damage. In June of the same year, aliyun once again released a fault, a direct result of the more than 1000 company business paralyzed for more than 30 minutes, resulting in the loss of billions of dollars.
Although such events afterwards were defined as “a very small probability of the event can be avoided, but the value of the data can not be measured, and the importance of doubt. The center of the cloud storage is safe, how to service provider of disaster tolerance, once again caused the industry to ponder.
User data low control, easy to leak information privacy
As people rely on technology continues to deepen, more and more life service migration to digital platform. The user’s identity information, political belief, consumption habits, file data is gradually transferred to the various functions of the third party cloud storage database. However, the control data key is not in the hands of users. Storage service provider to see any changes with the content uploaded by users, frequent accident data abuse scandal, the negative news of a series of question whether these storage services giant to store the national database of information security.
In June 2017, using the Amazon cloud server (AWS) of the U.S. company Deep Root Analytics data leaked political data on more than 198 million U.S. citizens, including personal information about 61% of the population of the United States, resulting in the history of the largest voter information exposure case. Not only that, with special purpose of stakeholder groups, will also get considerable profits from the data, and these black box trading is not known as real data providers – people.
Cloud storage services giant locking strategy, cloud is compatible with very weak
Along with the development of cloud computing services, vendor lock-in strategy gradually surfaced in front of each enterprise. To build a successful cloud data storage business is very complex, often require service providers to invest a lot of energy in establishing customer dependence on the production environment, and establish one or more of a global network of data centres in all continents, to meet the needs of customers around the world. These huge trade barriers has led to a handful of large companies with global cloud data storage market almost all, resulting in market monopoly, contrary to the situation with the cloud interoperability and compatibility criteria.
Near monopoly market structure, also caused a high user cost supplier switching cloud. At the same time, very far away from the end user data storage, data migration problems that center cloud storage efficiency will be affected.
Go to the cloud storage center of the imagination
The booming block chain technology has revolutionized the Internet development path, allowing the data distribution in the whole ledger cleverly in this novel, there is no central authority, but the basic requirement is the participant validation data, this data has become more open and safe offers unlimited possibilities. Establish data storage “Airbnb”, no longer seems out of reach.
What is cloud storage to the center
Block chain technology to the center of the store will set block chain technology advantages based on the functions of storing large amounts of data to meet the actual demand. Go to the center of the cloud storage, as the name suggests, is that the data is encrypted into small pieces distributed to a plurality of network nodes,. To provide cloud storage service center is only responsible for the management and maintenance of the block chain network dispersed, rather than the control of its stored data. Storage technology are open source, no company can fully control the block chain network data. Intelligent automatic trading contract and is responsible for storing data issued instructions, once the data on the chain in the chain block network cannot be deleted and changed, such as need to modify the data, to construct data record does not change in the block chain.
Because of this, compared with the centralized network, block chain to cloud storage data security center based on higher. All data will be encrypted and copied to ensure redundancy, each user has the right to control their own encryption key, which greatly ensure the controllability of data upload their own information. In addition, the document storage node is only responsible for a small file, this also means that the attack by the storage node to get file information is meaningless.
Go to the center of the cloud storage concept allows ordinary people in a point-to-point network by limiting the part of renting their hard disk space to achieve storage requirements. In order to revitalize this emerging cloud storage usage scenarios, most of the projects from two aspects of “supply and demand” incentive: storage mining (supply), the user can be added to the idle storage space in a distributed network, and allows the storage space provider receives storage requirements, and using Token as the incentive mechanism. In the storage service (demand), customers using the block chain network to store data, these data will be sent to the world many miners, miners employed storage and distribution data.
Go to the center of cloud storage project.
Comparison of centralized storage data stored in a single node, using raid mode for data backup approach to the center of the data storage data is distributed over multiple nodes, in order to build a storage system security and stability, to deal with massive data read and write the demand, it is also one of the future development of cloud storage trend.
At present, the field of cloud storage center to attract a large number of highly competitive market competition for share project, communication protocol of the underlying protocol IPFS and Swarm with Storj, Filecoin, storage incentive program of Sia, MaidSAFE and Arweave are the field industry pioneer.
Analysis of storage protocol project
IPFS as a content addressable, versioning, point-to-point hypermedia distributed file system and protocol, designed to use the same file system to connect all computing devices. IPFS aims to solve the existing HTTP distribution protocol is slow, expensive, fragile and other defects, the technical target is subversive and huge commercial potential.
Compared to the advantages of HTTP
Swarm is a local service layer Ethernet Fang Web3 stack, its main goal is to the etheric Fang public records, especially to provide distributed digital services for Dapp code and data and block data, such as storage, messaging, storage, insurance payment processing etc.. From the way of storage, Swarm uses point-to-point storage mode, in order to achieve the anti DDoS attacks, zero downtime, fault tolerance, resistance shielding and self sustaining purpose. In the design, Swarm and Ethernet Devp2p protocol in the network layer, multi-layer Fang Fang Ethernet block chain domain scheme (Ethereum Name Service) the depth of compatible services and payment, ensure the availability of content.
Go to the center of cloud storage and analysis of the incentive layer project
And the potential risk to the advantage of cloud storage center
Advantage: decentralized security protection
Block chain cloud storage to solve the problem of the overall loss of user data. First, get the user’s data is decomposed into small pieces, distributed in each node, this process is also known as the slice. Then, through the block chain function, such as hash function, public / private key encryption and transaction ledger in small data block add an additional layer of security, each data will be stored in distributed locations. If an intruder tries to attack, they must first obtain the encrypted information, and only part of the information rather than the entire document.
Advantage: more comprehensive privacy protection
The data upload information hiding, a single node does not store all the data owner. The miners received only part of the information in the process of packing storage data, which makes all the sensitive information can be protected block chain technology.
The advantage of faster transmission speed
Distributed storage settings faster than the most centralized system, when the user needs to read the data, all the nodes will also send their preservation that part of the data, automatic splicing after receiving, avoid downloading speed is subject to the bandwidth of the server and depends on its own download bandwidth, users can access the information quickly and seamlessly the expectation will be realized.
Advantages: lower storage costs
Block chain storage costs can reduce the price of cloud computing 50%-100%, significantly lower than the center of the cloud storage server. At the same time, to the idle storage space future potential users to consider, if more users can use the extra storage space mining, so the storage costs will decline further in the future. Any intermediary charge high costs on both sides of the market or platform, can reduce the operation cost to the lowest feasible using the block chain technology.
At present the technology center to cloud storage is still in the early stage of exploration and development of all kinds of technology to the center of the storage project and landing scene is worth the wait, but a series of problems still exposed this technology need to experience a test user with time, for example:
The problem of how to pay reasonable calculation of the storage node, the storage node of data storage, the storage node time and the amount of bandwidth used
How to standardize the project node in the ID ecosystem
How to solve the transmission speed of different countries and regions distributed storage
How to solve many of the country’s per capita international bandwidth and international connectivity problem of weak
Block chain technology is far from setting time in the future will continue to evolve. With the application of the scene is becoming more complex, urgent need to accelerate the standardization work, the lack of uniform standards, is not conducive to the development and application of block chain technology innovation project landing.
In addition, taking into account the storage requirements of individual and enterprise gradually diversified, block chain technology should also take into account the custom storage scheme of diversification, the depth of integration. The idea of the cloud, ground king, whether cooperative consensus algorithm, chip technology, data processing, ecological organization links, collaborative operation form cross chain interconnection, but also the current cloud storage technology center to a large-scale landing key. If Storj, Filecoin and other companies to establish partnerships with industry giants, Google, apple and other companies have started to use their services as the back-end storage platform, to reduce costs and provide a more reliable and consistent uptime for their customers. In a few years, from individual users, the traditional enterprises and block chain companies are likely to benefit from the change in the whole industry.
About the future
Distributed storage project by taking the cost and lower the personal information protection and enterprise benefit. Storage technology as the core technology to form a chain block is an important link, is composed of a single key value database to the integration and development of IPFS, distributed database, from a single consensus mechanism from the direction of the evolution of multi type mixed consensus mechanism. Storage technology in the process of renewal, also gradually to the direction of integration.
At present, the landing application project see more usage scenarios and circulation of ecological Token, still belongs to the category of fictitious economy. How to starting from Token, driven by such innovative technology to promote the application of general information sharing, so that more enterprises use the traditional distributed storage technology to reduce cost and improve the efficiency of business cooperation, promote the growth of the real economy, is still the bottom block chain service technology development direction of the future.
Go to the center of cloud storage technology from a logical point of view, can not be tampered with, data encryption, anti DDoS attack characteristics that block chain technology is almost perfect. However, if from the global management and application, safety and stability of the technology is restricted by the network infrastructure, operation management etc.. Whether it is zero knowledge proof, multi signature or ring signature, so matching business scenarios it is necessary to update the way through.
Finally, we need to properly use the double-edged sword, in the cloud storage technology center to enjoy the convenience, actively cooperate with regulatory requirements, take the initiative to meet the regulatory requirements in the design with built-in scheme, compliance and development opportunities, meet the coordination, rely on technology to solve the supervision system and leading technology.
1. Storj WhitePaper V3
2. IPFS WhitePaper
3. Sia Chinese white paper
4. Filecoin WhitePaper
5. card Hang Seng cloud storage: a broad space for development, blue ocean market to be Denver billions of enterprises
6. whales quasi Research Institute: go to the center of the Cloud Storage Industry Research Report