Editor’s note: I don’t even know his Gender age or any past, including important clues around his article “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System” papers, 575 Posts scattered in the bitcointalk forum, as well as his name, Satoshi Nakamoto (Nakamoto).
As James Burke said in “Connections”, “Things almost never turn out as expected.” (things we think are not the same)
The birth of the Greek alphabet to promote philosophy, logic and democracy. A little studied Scotland mechanic fine tune the steam pump, triggered the industrial revolution.
Burke also said, “Each one of innovations is part of a family of similar devices, and is the result of a sequence of closely connected events extending from the ancient world until the present day.” (each innovation and it is similar to the “innovation family” in part, since ancient times is closely related the event collection)
A weatherman 19 century designed a small device can spray cloud. Inspired by the Rutherford discovered that atoms can be split, which was later revered as the “father of nuclear physics”. A Jewish Student Rutherford in Cambridge refused to turn over, read the theoretical physics, after being appointed as chief scientist of the Manhattan plan “, he is Oppenheimer.
Review of every major inventions in history, they do not exist in isolation, but standing on the shoulder, and is closely related with the time. So is the bitcoin.
As a fast ten year old birthday of the “young” invention, bitcoin is steam plug or atomic bomb, not known. However, Berke once again taught me, “There is nowhere else to look for the future but in the past.” (the only way for the future is foreseen in the past)
Therefore, this article will first look back several related segments in the history of money. From it, we can not only know more about Nakamoto what you want to solve pain points, will discover the “center”, “token economy” in today’s hot words projected in the shadow of the past. After that, I will be with you “anti read” bitcoin white paper by Nakamoto “shoulders giants”, seize the “found the problem – solving problem” logic. This will enable us to “wild tales” closer to the father of bitcoin’s birth story.
The center of the spiral home currency history credit
5000 years ago, living in the Mesopotamia plain Sumerians began using silver as a supplementary means of transaction. That is to say, “Su” can be a cow with 10 kilograms of wheat +1 units for the “silver Mei”. But the question is, “Xiao Su” had only 5 kilograms of wheat. He and “Mei” to discuss, can first for cattle, after harvest and fill short that 5 pounds of wheat. “Mei” is not short of cattle, and for wheat, think it can do. But he dug from the river Words alone are no proof., some mud to pinch the mud plate, with reed engraved the “debt”, on the cover of “little Su” seal, and then burned into the mud plate.
So, the earliest credit tool for human birth.
After 2000, the Babylonians inherited the mud plate to transfer slab in more complex business activities (debt), interest loans and calculation.
Behind the silver and mud plate can play money and credit, cannot do without some basic conditions:
Silver to its scarcity, (relative) stability and portability, on demand reached a “consensus in barter”.
Subject to the shortage of resources, productivity limitations, social division of labor is different, affected by seasonal unpredictable factors such as agriculture, in the future, the time was given the “commercial” value, credit will be introduced to the value of the exchange.
Money and credit to be widely recognized, both parties also need the third party (then state power) endorsement; once a breach of the contract, the third party has the right to enforce the contract, in order to achieve a fair.
Let’s push the time line to the first Century BC, Emperor Augustus (Octavius) will be Rome’s currency credit system established in the temple of Jupiter (the central bank’s gold reserves on the settlement). But as the Empire strong push urbanization movement, to keep up with the pace of agricultural production began to can not afford to support the rapid development of the city and high welfare system. In order to compensate for the military surge of fiscal deficit, the rulers by reducing the silver content of money let the continued depreciation of the currency.
For 301 years, could not carry hyperinflation and the poor empire of Rome issued a “riot highest price law”, want to control administrative price. But just the opposite, “sellers” did not dare stockpile (will be killed), and do not want to sale in accordance with the law. To barter trade degradation times, free market collapse.
The next emperor Constantine with the “gold standard” to replace “silver”. However, only public officials take the gold silver collar salary, salary of ordinary people had to bear the consequences of currency depreciation. As the middle variable, the economic slowdown, coupled with the war of barren land and productivity decline, Rome empire collapses, the population back to 500 years ago when the level of “independence”.
The same is the royal family, 1200 years after the Stuart family apparently summarizes many previous experience. 1694 years, the Bank of England issued notes endorsement by the state. Prior to this, the more popular European financial model is gold lending and bill payment. Only this time, Bill upgrade license royalty money, anyone can be convertible into coin. The money circulation property soon emerged.
In 1929, the Great Depression (The Great Depression), the UK, Japan and the United States have abandoned the “gold standard”, notes slowly no longer able to represent the value of gold. In 1944, the Bretton Woods system has become a new international monetary system, replacing the “gold standard” is the “gold exchange standard”, the dollar as the equivalent of gold, and in the center of world currency. In 1971, seventh times the dollar crisis, in order to control inflation, stimulate economic recovery, shortly after taking office, President Nixon delivered a televised speech, announced to stop performing a foreign government or central bank can exchange gold to the United States dollar obligations. Since then, the Bretton Woods system began to collapse, the foundation of money from the metal supply to national commitment.
This time from Nakamoto “birth”, there are less than 4 years.
In the long history of money out of the above several slides, we will find that:
Barter currency (although the inconvenience spawned Marx does not think so);
Money is not only a measure of value, but also bear the function of circulation (Adam Simy also taught me);
Money in the form of evolution (metal, draft, notes, numbers), but the transaction always rely on third party as an endorsement of trust, and the trust is often the kingship and state.
With the evolution of society and the promotion of productivity, the central level financial institutions gradually improve, but also there is a voice: they are reliable enough?
Mysterious religious and political metaphor in double cypherpunks
The 2 dollar man, the third president of the United States, the main drafter of the “Declaration of independence” Thomas Jefferson
In 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote, “All men are created equal.” (createdequal)
But the rulers control financial institutions in order to achieve the purpose of political conspiracy theory has never been silenced. The aforementioned Nakamoto “birthday” hide a let people relish the stem, is also to the original monetary system at.
In several places Nakamoto So’s early to talk about bitcoin, should be the most “anonymous” is the point to point Foundation Technology (James Burke P2P community website or the website of the co-founder). Because you want to register, birthday is required. Nakamoto So was filled in April 5, 1975 .
P2P Foundation registration rules (easily posted under Nakamoto in the P2Pfoundation home page, although small ten years did not update……)
In April 5, 1933, President Roosevelt signed the Executive Order 6102. Act, prohibit citizens possession of gold. People need to be turned over all the gold to the bank (and vouchers), $20.67 per ounce for notes or deposits; the bank will collect the gold by the fed.
In January second, the Roosevelt administration defined the new price is $35, which represents the dollar (that is, people’s private property) fell 41%.
Although the history of the book said, this is the first stage of Roosevelt’s new deal, through the implementation of the so-called Keynes doctrine, in times of emergency (preceding the great depression) in order to force the government to intervene in the economy, which enhance the international competitiveness of domestic products. But Congress without the democratic process, at the “confiscation” private gold, has been a serious violation of the Constitution and the “Declaration of independence” advocating freedom, equality, privacy and other values. When the Senate Budget Committee Chairman Lewis Douglas said: “ this is the end of Western civilization. “
However, a strong government and ignored the high court proceedings. In fact, the mouth of Roosevelt in the “national emergency” (national emergency) issued “temporary” act 42 years, until Nixon announced that the dollar and gold decoupling after 3 years is 1975 years 1 months 1 days, a citizen of the United States to regain possession of gold free.
Photo Copyright: NBCnews
So, as individuals, can have the power to fight?
80 at the end of last century, a group of genius geeks advocate by the encryption algorithm to defend its information and freedom of property, opposed by the government and the military monopoly password rules. These small circle had no organization operation a few years “”. Until 1992 Intel, senior scientist Tim May launched the encrypted mail lists. In 1993, American mathematician Eric Hughes wrote a book called “A Cypherpunk’s Manifesto” book, create Cypherpunk (cypherpunks) . This group was formally named.
Mail group members included in the Wikileaks founder Julian Assange, written in the peer-to-peer file sharing protocol of BitTorrent Bram Cohen, the father of the web Tim Berners-Lee, first proposed the concept of intelligent contract Nick Szabo, one of the founders of Facebook Sean Parker. The team focuses on mathematics, encryption technology, computer technology and other topics, also relates to point-to-point payment system and described (such as E-cash, B-money, Beenz, Flooz and other virtual currency pioneer). But, these systems are not yet out of control center, and the theory and landing, still lack a “Sarajevo incident”.
9 2008 21, the Wall Street Investment Bank fell one after another, the Fed announced: the remaining two investment banks (Goldman and Morgan Stanley) to commercial banks; hope to survive the financial crisis by xichu.
In October 3, 2008, the Bush administration signed a $700 billion financial rescue plan.
After 28 days, that is 2008 November 1st, a cryptography mail group where there is a new post: “ we are developing a new electronic currency system, using the full point form, and no third party trust. ” the text is a post titled “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System” papers, Satoshi Nakamoto (signed Nakamoto).
Some of the basic rules of metzdowd.com mail group
Based on the rigorous logic describes the design of the point-to-point electronic cash system, the first is to discuss the financial institutions subject to the “trust based” (based on credit) problems, step by step instructions on how to achieve the “no third party”, and skillfully resolve technical problems inherited from the previous.
Two months later, Nakamoto released the first version of the open source bitcoin client, and dig out 50 coins for the first time. The first bitcoin block is called “ Genesis block” (the block), founding block is compiled into a 0 block, not on the chain. Nakamoto for 6 days to dig the block. This is caused by the bitcointalk forum, bitcoin “believers to think of the Bible,” the god six day creation and rested in the 7 strike”.
“God creates this earth and its heaven and all forms of life in six days he rested on the… And… Seventh day from all his work which he had made.” – Genesis
Although decentralized does not appear in the paper (Center), token (General Certificate), economy (economic) concept, but Nakamoto explained in detail the block (Block) and chain (Chain) principle in the network. Like God said, “Let there be light, and there was light. – Genesis 1:3. “ So, there is a block chain (Block Chain) .
This thesis, later became a bit “God” “Bible” technology has become the cornerstone of the faith, the developer documentation became the “code of hammurabi”.
Then, for the first time through the realization of bitcoin exchange payment, the real scene pizza by the United States government blocked accounts of WikiLeaks on bitcoin, Nakamoto So miraculously survived the “decentralization” and retired, genuine and fake rumor and appeared a series of legend, the descendants of the fusion of expectations, imagination and speculation, has become the “Bible story”.
Some people are not satisfied with the “world depicted in the Old Testament”, another sect, the doctrine of written white paper, in bitcoin after ten years, telling their story of faith. As the 66 of the Bible writing across the 1500, and after reading 2000, divided into 33000 branches of christianity. CoinMarketCap display, digital currency has exceeded 2100, digital currency overall market size of more than $2000 billion (a started from 0 do 2000 billion icon or Buffett founded Berkshire Hathaway). Bitcoin is still the market leader above 1100 billion dollars in the digital currency market, the average price of $6487.13 yesterday.
Barbaric growth “money circle”, is it beyond the Nakamoto originally conceived, we can make nothing of it. Whether as a digital currency and block chain has deviated from the track, also is a difficult question to answer.
When “the Da Vinci code” lost in the Langdon online cable, don’t forget to look for the answer in the bible. In order to figure out the Cong bitcoin design ideas, I would like to change the angle of “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash a System.”.
Every great achievement will bring new problems of human organ is the technology?
Let us start from the last page of the “reference” read:
These “God” why appear on this page? I made a table:
We found that the third chapter of the public key signature, time stamp, bitcoin in the second chapter, the fourth chapter of the Hashcash and PoW, the seventh chapter of the Merkle Tree, the tenth chapter relates to the protection of privacy thoughts, all appear in the table.
Nakamoto So’s work includes, by hash of all transaction time stamp, and then merged into the chain as transaction records; through the hash PoW achieve record can not be altered based on solving the Byzantine Generals Problem and double problem; design a consensus mechanism and incentive mechanism to prevent economic network attack — more than 50% of the work force to achieve the attack, meet this condition to obtain the mining income higher than the gains of network attack…… And ultimately the formation of this “includes all necessary rules and incentives” P2P electronic money system.
“Humans are the sex organs of technology.” (human organ Technology) Kevin Kelly said in “The Technium”.
In the long history of science and technology, Nakamoto bitcoin is just a small step technique”. Ten years ago, he combines the predecessors in distributed database, P2P network, encryption algorithm and time stamp of experience in the field of achievement, “be nakamoto”. After ten years, countless innovators “standing on the shoulders of the” transformation of digital currency and block chain. Nakamoto So’s legacy is not only a set of electronic cash system, there are methods to discover and solve problems, and freedom of thought.
Albert Einstein once said, “A clever person solves a problem. A wise person avoids it.” (smart people solve problems, wise people avoid problems)
The “wisdom” of Nakamoto So also left two paintball:
Snowden has revealed that NSA (NSA) in the elliptic curve algorithm (ECC) embedded in a “back door”, can be in a particular way to weaken this curve. But Nakamoto did not choose international encryption standard, instead of using the Koblitz curve.
Another visionary design, has been criticized for “redundancy” and “elliptic curve digital signature algorithm + two hash”. Later, people found the bitcoin network to deal with quantum computer attack.
Biyi to things with a deep hiding
When you wake up and find myself have the ability, you will (like iron man) to tell the world, or (like spider man) to hide their identity?
At the same time the cypherpunks movement, also had a lot of “anti financial center” attempt, but the outcome is not beautiful. In 1998, Hawaii resident Bernard Von NotHaus to create a private currency Liberty Dollar, 2007 FBI raided and seized the coinage activities, Liberty Dollar, Bernard Von NotHaus for “making official currency competition with America’s private coins” sin. In 2007, digital currency e-Gold due to lack of information from the customer is accused of illegally detained, the inventor.
The main line of the back story. 2010 years 12 months 12 days, Nakamoto published an article in the bitcoin forum bitcointalk, and will be handed over to the chief site bitcoin developer Gavin Andresen. Then he and the “circle of friends” message exchange has gradually reduced to zero.
Lost “thread” people began to realize that Nakamoto has never disclosed personal information exchange, and anyone using PGP encryption and Tor network. In 2008 he registered bitcoin.org and bitcoin.net two sites, both names anonymousspeech provides anonymity. He even in the white community and speech, have forged some personalized features, to avoid measurement (the style of writing as stylistics to identify a person’s identity for each unique fingerprint tracing).
Remember the “egg”, Nakamoto not to step on the NSA algorithm of “trap”? FBI Xu is the smell of smell danger, but also on the Nakamoto identity unfold over many years of investigation. Someone asked FBI and CIA to submit FOIA (FOIA) request, asking about Nakamoto identity information. Get back to “Glomar response” (neither admitted nor denied). There are a lot of people believe that NSA knows the true identity of the Cong.
Every once in a while, someone claims to be Nakamoto So, the media have also occasionally announced the discovery of Nakamoto Mami and behind the organization. Unfortunately, “connection” magazine, the Gizmodo website, Bloomberg issued news have been questioned and eventually the rumor.
At the beginning of 2014, the American “Newsweek” ever investigation that Nakamoto’s true identity is Dorian Nakamoto (Dorian Dibengtson), a Japanese american.
But soon, Nakamoto in P2P Foundation made a “I am not Dorian Nakamoto.” (I’m not, Dorian Nakamoto), denied the “Newsweek” speculation.
Thanks to the long sword in.
Perhaps, the “be Nakamoto”, “looking Nakamoto” this game becomes devoid of sense. As we do not know (there is no need to know), 5000 years ago thought of using silver ingots and mud plate Sumerian who.
Perhaps, as he himself said: We are all Satoshi (everyone is Nakamoto So).
References and related reading
Satoshi Nakamoto, Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash “System” https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf
Interested in history, “secret: 5000 years ago the Sumerians is how to play the credit? “Http://www.qulishi.com/news/201603/94824.html
After “the ancient empire of Rome Jingyue, why the decline of government junk currency prices soaring” http://cul.qq.com/a/20170612/011701.htm
The square of finance, “10 minutes to read” the Bretton Woods system https://www.sohu.com/a/134748888_474256
Wikipedia, “Executive Order 6102” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Executive_Order_6102
Yang Jiaxu, “the process and causes of the 2008 financial crisis of America”
David Orrell. (2016) The evolution money “of”.
Yoram Barzel. (2002) Theory of the State “A.”
Handa, Jagdish. (2009) “Monetary Economics”.
Under the light of rats, “bitcoin, block chain and the cypherpunks” the history of https://www.jianshu.com/p/7d0327e18244
“We are all long swords, Nakamoto So: the establishment of the pioneers of cryptography diligently strive after money” https://www.8btc.com/article/6697
Melody, “why Nakamoto always anonymous? “Https://www.8btc.com/article/194131
Barrett, Kurian, Johnson. (2001) “World Christian Encyclopedia”.
Wendy, “the world’s most low-key Billionaire: Nakamoto So is still a year Everfount received bitcoin” https://www.8btc.com/article/150353
Qq88, search for “Nakamoto” https://www.8btc.com/article/36132
Dominic Frisby. (2014). “Bitcoin:The future of money?”
Wikipedia, the “Double-spending” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double-spending
At the circle of “https://blog.csdn.net/dhd040805/article/details/79899642 code, the Byzantine Generals Problem”
Special thanks to the “methodology” of James Burke. (1995). The “Connections”.
I am Odaily senior editor of the daily planet Hao Fangzhou, block chain quality projects for reports, plus nooxika, please note Name + company + subject. Do a little notice by the Odaily Research Institute of daily planet written “bitcoin history” to be published, will tell you more stories after 2008, please pay attention.