Editor’s note: This article from the blue fox note (ID:lanhubiji): the medium.com, the original author: Nate Maddrey (Digital Asset Research, an analyst at) compilation: Chocolate Superman, the daily planet Odaily authorized reprint.
Block chain management is a very hot topic, many people focus on the blockchain technology, but most of the top block design chain is actually the governance structure, which relates to sociology, economics and politics of knowledge.
What is the block chain governance?
Each country or city has a set of management systems of their own to create, update and enforce the law. Block chain also have their own management system, is not the same in the block chain code is legal.
Sample source code from the Ethernet virtual machine workshop
Block chain does not need to specify what conditions can the war (at least not yet), but it does require a standardized procedures how to update the code base, and set the initial capital management and long-term planning.
The code update is usually in order to improve the security of the system (such as bitcoin, Segwit) or improve scalability (reference Ethernet Casper, and Fang) these code changes may be controversial. Block chain also need a fund management process, determine how to motivate the maintenance and update protocol. In general, the process belongs to the category of block chain management.
The modern western democratic government usually has three branches: Legislative (Legislative) (Judicial), judicial and administrative institutions (Executive). Block chain has no formal government departments, but also has the equivalent of three branches of the organization.
Note: there are many differences between traditional government and block chain management organization. The following analogy applies in some respects, more is to describe the basic governance analogy block chain.
What is the three branch chain block
1. core developers
Each block chain has a core software repository for the main preservation protocol code. For example, the core repository of Ethernet square is Go-Ethereum, and the bitcoin is Bitcoin Core. The software repository closely managed by the core developer team, they have to add or delete the code to store process.
For example, the etheric Fang process is as follows :
Anyone with a GitHub account can submit proposals to improve the etheric Fang (EIP), to update the code.
EIP will be an informal discussion and review on GitHub.
If a EIP is technically feasible, it can be in the etheric Fang fortnightly Developers Conference (All Devs) was put forward, the participants composed of 50-100 core developers Ethernet square
If all the core developers agreed to add the EIP, the EIP is added to the code base.
The core developers like the legislative department: they have the ability to create the code and add it to the central repository, but they do not have the ability to implement it. On the contrary, all nodes have the ability.
The node is the main block chain. All nodes are running a complete block chain software (such as Bitcoin Core, Geth) of any computer. All the routing software node contains the blockchain complete distributed books and run P2P protocol.
The miners is part of operation of professional mining software all nodes, but also has some of the nodes do not run mining software. To make the code changes to take effect, individual nodes need to update its software that contains the updated code. This can be done by soft bifurcation, implementation of a backwards compatible way. Can also bifurcate through hard hard, bifurcation and the old version of the software is not compatible.
Bifurcation can reach an agreement or controversial (or both). Most of the bifurcation is all through the network by consensus. For example, Bitcoin SegWit bifurcation eventually by bitcoin all nodes agree, this means that the whole network will be updated to the latest version of the software.
But there are also some controversy after the formation of bifurcation, such as the DAO event ETC (Ethernet Fang classics). The controversial bifurcation to oppose the core developers and create a new crypto currency. The purpose is to update the code for branch nodes as much as possible, but the final decision in the hands of each node.
All nodes like blockchain judicial departments. Although the legislative branch can make as much as possible the law according to their own wishes, but if the Justice Department found that the law is illegal, you can choose not to enforce these laws. Similarly, the core developers can write code, but unless all nodes run the software to achieve the code, otherwise meaningless code.
Most of the block chain has a foundation or organization to manage their money and give the core developers subsidies (some block chain management, a limited liability company or other types of convenience, the following is simplified as the “foundation” of this organization).
For example, the etheric square foundation is a non-profit organization supporting the development of Ethernet fang. It currently holds 663046 ETH ($189000000), led by Vitalik Buterin. But not all is a non-profit foundation. Ripple by a for-profit company (Ripple Labs) Gerbaud laboratory management.
Provide financial foundation / sustainable development organization is usually responsible for the block chain, and guide the overall direction and development blueprint. Although the foundation / organization can influence the roadmap, but they cannot be executed, execution depends on the core developers to write the actual code.
The blockchain foundation usually has an influential figure, similar to the president. Vitalik Buterin is the founder of the etheric Fang, although he does not have the ability to add separate code on the network to the core repository or forced bifurcation, but have great influence in the community. Some of the funds can directly control the appointment of the core developers, although many projects are open.
The checks and balances between the three
Checks and balances in the chain block
Block chain governance is a process between the core developers, all nodes and foundation interaction balance. Software developers can publish new code, but unless all nodes implement these changes, or changes will not be effective.
All nodes rely on software developers to build and release the improved protocol is required to update, but if they do not agree with the core developers of the decision, they can create a controversial hard bifurcation.
The fund will be available through the overall direction of what core developers to support and influence the roadmap and the agreement, but if there is no core developers and complete node support, it can not realize the vision.
There is also a branch of the block chain governance influence: the token holder. Although usually does not directly influence the process of token holder update block chain, but they can be caused by indirect effects by choosing whether to use encryption currency.
For example, if the core developers and all nodes agree, but most do not want to accept the change the token holder, so token holders may sell the collective tokens and make the system into chaos. “People” is often considered the fourth branches of governance. The same token, the holder can be regarded as a fourth branch block chain management.