Recently, IEO seems to be very fire, the fire was so many people feel rather baffling. In fact, in July 2017, Binance launched the asset distribution platform Launchpad, hoping to help the quality block chain project ICO, Gifto, BreadWallet had launched two projects. But in September 4, 2017, the central bank and other seven ministries jointly issued a document called ICO, affected by the Launchpad then gradually fade out the market.
However, the second half of 2018, the exchange project issued IEO has gradually became popular in Korea, but due to the issuance of the project itself lack off the market enthusiasm gene, IEO did not get enough attention. Until January 2019, Binance restart Launchpad. Behind this situation, Binance brand and industry flow and South Korea market characteristics, have great relevance.
According to the daily planet Odaily previously reported “IEO is stepping toward self destruction”, the fundamental factors of many industry practitioners and experts believe that the IEO model can continue to operate in the project itself is good or bad, if IEO is used by some bad people to cut chives, then this model can only play two to three months.
Now all exchanges have announced the launch of IEO platform, the fire officer Xuanqi optimization on today’s currency currency channel Huobi Prime, Bibox also revealed that the line will be a program like IEO “Bibox Orbit in the near future”. In order not to be the mainstream exchange platform to catch up with the other, are actively looking for high-quality project IEO.
According to the characteristics of an upcoming Celer currency Launchpad Network Odaily, the daily planet found high valuation, strong academic background, strong capital projects may become the subject of exchange bias IEO. The daily planet Odaily reviews the following five items, with similar characteristics. (Conflux, Blockcloud, MultiVAC, Nervos cloud blocks and Thunder) on which one you want to exchange IEO most of the five projects?
PoW + DAG Conflux, a consensus mechanism — the Turing Award winner blessing
Conflux is based on a proof of work (Proof of Work) block chain protocol, as a decentralized, scalable DApp (distributed application solutions).
At present, most of the block chain market solutions are based on the proof of interest (Proof of Stake) is the characteristic of Conflux, extended Conflux scheme combines the proof of work (PoW) and directed acyclic graph (DAG) data structure, in the premise to the center of the block, not only ensures the safety chain, but also enhance the blockchain scalability, on some level, break the chain of public “Impossible Triangle”, so as to solve the scalability problem of public chain.
The daily planet [Odaily note: the DAG name is “DAG”, no block concept, not all data are packed into blocks, and then the block links block, but each user can submit a data unit, the data unit may have a lot of things, such as transactions, news etc.. The data unit via a reference link, thus forming a semi order relation DAG (directed acyclic graph). The characteristics of the DAG is to write asynchronous data unit, a large number of transaction data written to the DAG client wallet can independently asynchronously, which can greatly support concurrency and high speed. ]
The implementation of Conflux
The simple consensus mechanism increases the capacity and improve the rate of lump block approach is not desirable, these two methods will make the block spread in the network delay is relatively longer, resulting in a lot of bifurcation in the books, not only a waste of computing and network resources, but also endanger the safety of.
And Nakamoto packing block of consensus in the transaction order strictly regulate the different, Conflux is optimistic assumptions, in both blocks (Tx, Transactions), the transaction is not in conflict, as long as all the nodes on the trading order can reach a consensus agreement.
Based on this hypothesis, Conflux first set up rules will block are integrated into DAG: each block will reference a block edge of its parent (Parent Edges), each block can also refer to happen before it, has not been cited as their leading edge blocks with edge (Reference Edges) father, edge and edge has determined the relationship between each reference blocks, to achieve the overall framework of DAG, the increase in the number of the same period by processing block.
Compared with bitcoin can handle only one inefficient mode in one area, the DAG structure can greatly improve the speed of the chain.
However, DAG cannot be displayed between different blocks of the same period of order (i.e. block order), to further improve the block sorting mechanism, the Conflux team creatively introduced GHOST (ghost) protocol, topological sorting.
The daily planet [Odaily note: GHOST protocol is a backbone selection protocol (not a side chain selection protocol). For example: the classic Proof-of-Work protocol is to take the longest chain as the basic principle, for block selection; the new GHOST protocol is to contain the largest number of subtrees as the basic principle for block choice — this can be said to be the most significant difference between GHOST protocol and PoW protocol, and even can be said to be the only the difference]
Conflux proposed Epoch (time) concept, steps will refine the block sorting order split into four steps: to confirm the pivot (Pivot Chain) chain chain block arrangement; bifurcation; period (Epoch) in the transaction (Tx) Ranking Ranking.
Where is the co-founder of dragon, assistant professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology computer science University of Toronto and Tsinghua University (Computer Science) – Beijing joint research center researcher at the Arxan Financial Technologies Ltd block chain technology.
Yao Qizhi is the chief scientist of the Chinese world only a Turing Award winner.
In addition, the Conflux development team is mainly from Tsinghua University, University of Toronto and other prestigious world-class scholars, has a strong academic research background, also has from Silicon Valley and Wall Street technology or financial institutions experience.
In December 2018, Conflux funds raised $35 million in funding for the development of Conflux, investors including Sequoia Chinese (Sequoia China), Metastable Capital, IMO Ventures, Fundamental Labs and China well-known technology companies.
Conflux is the late occurrence of the project, is still in the stage of the white paper + ppt. But Conflux has a top technical team, and Turing Award winner Yao Qizhi trust for its endorsement, when the project has just released does attract a lot of investors and insiders attention.
Two, building a new generation of cloud Blockcloud: TCP/IP protocol blockchain + SCN
Building cloud Blockcloud is a low-level protocol level project, will block the chain and SCN (Service Center Network) technology, hope to establish a new generation of global TCP/IP network, to solve the existing problems of the Internet, support the connection order billion mobile devices.
With the improvement of Internet cloud block chain blocks, block chain fusion propulsion landing technology and industry, enabling the real economy. Blockcloud in the past 20 international authoritative rating agencies ranked top 5.
The TCP/IP did not collapse, building cloud Blockcloud why suddenly want to launch a new generation of TCP/IP?
The Internet was born in the 20 century 60 – 70 in the 1980s, in order to maintain the nuclear war between the forces of stable calls, therefore using the IP address based on the point-to-point communication mode, with the center server connection, a limited number of relatively fixed equipment, data and services. With more and more equipment, data and services to access the Internet, short board gradually emerged.
The building blocks of cloud team and mentor, has worked with high railway departments, install the corresponding sensors and signal collector on the rail, eventually found that the traditional TCP/IP layer can not adapt to the high-speed mobile state of the network connection, in the process of moving the TCP stop interruption and restart, the network performance has greatly decreased. To this end, the building blocks of cloud SCN network is introduced, so that the application between the direct use of ID service instead of the IP address for communication, new network layer service access layer SAL, let the service and control plane separation, the application does not require the service provider to connect the services, service providers can seamlessly change the address, transfer service and enhance the network mobility and scalability.
It introduced the blockchain cloud building technology, in order to better solve the problems encountered by the internet. Most of the existing public chain is the superposition of the application layer, as the basic protocol in TCP/IP layer, Blockcloud layer is more than the public cloud building chain, can provide support for the public chain.
If things, block chain applications such as car, public chain is the engine, fuel passes, then the cloud is the road block.
1. SCN and block chain combination
LEGO Blockcloud introduced cloud service centric network (SCN). SCN provides a service aware network stack, application directly in the service name rather than address communication. However, SCN in the service level of trust, motivation and profit exist on the short board. Block chain can more than make up for the short board.
2. PoS service mechanism
In order to reliably verify service providers, cloud service that Blockcloud design blocks (Proof of Service, PoS mechanism), from IPFS. This mechanism is mainly to verify the authenticity of the miners who posted to the network service, only after verification, service may be released to the network, users can connect with.
This is not a one-time validation, and subsequent random verification, once the service will be permanently off the shelf.
The mechanism to confirm the authenticity and contribution of network participants, while eliminating the bad actors. The consensus is reached through incentive verification service provider network verifier.
The license for the service provider BLOC economic incentive awards, miners maintenance ledger and verify the authenticity and validity of service.
3. on the basis of DAG, the concept of CoDAG
In order to adapt to the asynchronous transaction providers and subscribers, building cloud Blockcloud compact design directed acyclic graph (CoDAG). CoDAG is more suitable for recording transactions in mobile devices and offline.
PoS is used to verify the authenticity of the service, and CoDAG is used for accounting. CoDAG is a book based on the structure of DAG, allowing the entire structure in the tail (or leaf node) added a number of blocks, improve the parallelism of the whole book structure, applicable to asynchronous operation in the network center of the scene. Compared with the general DAG structure, CoDAG uses a more compact data structure system, between nodes more closely linked, the malicious node is difficult to enter, so as to achieve a higher safety performance and determine the transaction confirmation time.
How to transform the existing Internet
Cloud block Blockcloud four layer architecture to realize the transformation of the internet.
It can be seen from the figure, this chart is in turn from top to bottom:
Layer4: interface layer, communication interface for service oriented applications;
Layer3: the routing layer, mainly to do mapping and transfer, that is to say, although the services do not have to manage IP address these things, but the network will eventually have to go IP, there is a mapping between, how is the name of the service from the IP address is mapped into the final end where;
Layer2: Proof of Service QC, consensus mechanism is in this layer, the miners continue to service for inspection, sampling, and judge the service in the end there is no problem;
Layer1: the cashier, when the service went to this layer, used by users, service providers need to get paid, and this layer is equivalent to the teller, which is responsible for accounting, and the corresponding remuneration to the service provider.
In building the cloud, block chain system and peer-to-peer network Coral, composed of service distribution backbone network, to ensure the security of network.
Blockcloud in networking, content distribution network, high-speed mobile network, block chain network, edge computing and other fields can be used.
The Internet of things for example, it is estimated that it will increase the number of equipment from 7 billion now to 3 years after the 18 billion. The floor was faced with a lack of interoperability, it is difficult to guarantee the security and privacy problems such as low value circulation. The building blocks of cloud Blockcloud will make use of idle resources, making the Internet of things can provide support for large dynamic node.
At present, the building blocks of cloud Blockcloud Asia official telegraph group nearly reached 30 thousand people, the building blocks of Blockcloud Chinese cloud fans have also been close to 20 thousand telegraph group. At present, the building blocks have been successfully set up in cloud cover, Britain, Korea and Vietnam, Russia, Thai, Arabic, 100+ countries and regions, the total number of nearly 300 thousand of the community.
A visiting scholar Blockcloud CEO in the cloud building behavior of Princeton University, Hong Kong Polytech University, Ph.D., postdoctoral Computer Department of Tsinghua University Institute of computer China block chain Committee, has many years of research experience in the Internet and block chain technology.
The core team members are from Princeton, University of Tokyo, Tsinghua University and other universities and research institutions, as well as Morgan Stanley, BAT, HUAWEI and other enterprises. The formulation of the core R & D team members who participated in the first generation of Internet China international standard. In addition to the project advisory team with IEEE Fellow 2, the national people plan 3 people, Chinese Computer Society blockchain committee member 4 people, 15 professors, including the Internet technology standardization organization IETF Baker, former chairman of the Fred Shai Mohaban Internet expert and former Obama economist Hoan Soo Lee government.
The building blocks of cloud Blockcloud currently has access to Genesis Capital, Innoangel Fund (LED), Ok Capital, Neo Global Capital, BKFund, JRR, GBIC, BlockVC, S.capital, Brink Asset, Consensus Capital and MW Partners and other investment institutions.
After reading the above description, you can probably understand that Blockcloud is not a pure cloud building block chain project, unlike the public chain, it is an underlying network protocol, is a protocol level chain system.
The positioning block cloud Blockcloud block chain technology, a new generation of TCP/IP based on the Internet of things, DAPP and non block chain application support, technical paper just for block cloud Blockcloud innovative applications in the field of networking description. The promotion of the Internet of things, the problem of personal information security has been more concerned about the public, building cloud Blockcloud using the block chain technology can completely dispel the public concerns, a big challenge is to face.
Slice scheme three, MultiVAC into the storage node + elastic design
The chain project slicing expansion using MultiVAC, this paper proposes a concept of cloud computing is different from the “elastic computing network”, which is the chain of DApp developers can according to their business needs based on the selection of scalability, security, to the center of the demand in different dimensions, the underlying network will take this the contract assigned to different slice. Developers also need to deploy according to their business contract.
1. DApp developers can adjust according to the business expansion, and safety to the center.
MultiVAC proposed a concept different from cloud computing “elastic computing network”, which is the chain of DApp developers can according to their business needs based on the selection of scalability, security, to the center of the demand in different dimensions, the underlying network will take this contract transaction assigned to different slice. Developers also need to deploy according to their business contract.
2. introduction of storage nodes, reduce the storage cost of miners
In order to reduce the storage of data, ensure to the center, MultiVAC introduced the storage characters of nodes, the nodes are divided into storage node, node and node three miners light, do not need to have the whole network books.
In the first piece of miner nodes elected block node, verify and package (the need to block out the storage node called Merkle Proof to demonstrate the pen input is not used), broadcast slice, and then sent to the storage node synchronization.
The miners node function is to store the information (Qu Kuaitou), and is responsible for verifying the transaction, with control data. The storage node is stored in all the books in it, somewhat similar to the super node role, large storage capacity, there is a certain threshold, but the difference is only store transactions and assist in transaction verification, without any control of the data, which go to the center of the characteristics. The storage node can be understood as the network node based service providers, similar to the network provider (mobile, Unicom, telecom) role.
Is the key points of the design, proof of abstract information + + transaction storage node node can be directly used miners transaction to provide, to verify the transaction. Only store transaction summary information, reduce the amount of data miner nodes, but also reduces the miners access threshold, ordinary PC can be added.
3. cross piece transactions, each slice in other slice timing synchronization of the new situation, fixed transmission cross piece transactions.
Every piece of MultiVAC, regularly sync other slice area size, each block a piece inside, there is a space in the new state records other slices, and then cross piece transaction processing.
Patch 1 launched at a time after the transaction, the transaction is confirmed in the block height H1; (2 pieces at a height of H2), and the deal is reflected in the slice 2, slice 2 is needed at a certain height (usually the next block, such as h2+1) to read from the 1 slice H1 high degree, will put the money up 2 points. Here is a bit like, A bank account in exchange for a sum of money to the B account, A display has been deducted, but B is not immediately received during the inter slice network congestion may occur in trading delays, but does not affect other transactions in normal. MultiVAC uses the eventual consistency to ensure the slice 2 can in order to get all the pieces from the 1.
The advantage is that you can put the cross piece transaction costs are fixed, does not increase with the cross piece transactions increase, and increase the cost of storage is very small.
The MultiVAC technical team from Harvard, Stanford, Tsinghua, and Nanyang Polytechnic, and senior engineering experts, Google Facebook and beauty group reviews.
The MultiVAC team to $15 million in annual financing 2018. Official website shows, investment institutions from South Korea, the United States and Europe, including IDG, Hong Thai capital, venture capital and other investment institutions and nine NGC, JRR Crypto, Hashed Arrington, XRP and other digital asset investment fund.
MultiVAC has learned from other public chain projects in technology development, using elastic slice is presented on basis of public network chain is infinite expansion of force. Developers can according to their own needs in the slice to make a choice between technology is attractive for the market, the track of quality.
Slice technology development while increase the difficulty of development, but the technical idea of balance between simplicity and practicability, has a good reference for other projects to solve the “Impossible Triangle”. Although the project is still in the early stages of development, but the team both in technology and market operation are relatively strong, collocation is reasonable, but also get the well-known South Korean investment institutions investment.
But the MultiVAC according to the project location competition to join the sustainable development of user groups is crucial, community construction also needs to be strengthened. Some of the details of the key technical papers are not clear, the punishment mechanism incentive mechanism such as the cross slice mechanism, distributed storage and node passes, distribution and use of funds has not been announced.
Four, Nervos Network network design based on multi block chain technology
Nervos Network is the name of a public block chain network launched by Nervos Foundation and the maintenance of the. Is not a simple public chain, but the multilayer design block chain based network technology, and the existing chain of all functions are concentrated in a chain, it is difficult to achieve the best optimization, in block chain has a well-known “Impossible Triangle Theory”, a the chain want to have both security and performance and to the center, this is not possible, can only take care of two.
Nervos served as their respective functions in different layers by Layer1 and Layer2, Layer1 is responsible for the global consensus, to ensure the safety of the whole network; Layer2 is a set of application chain solutions, implementation of performance guarantee under various scenarios. Stand in the whole network, the whole network also has the three performance, to achieve the whole block chain network equilibrium.
At present, the market has a lot of Layer2 project, location is the current public accelerator chain, and in general, native support is ETH; if you want to support other chain, then again development cooperation.
“With the hierarchical block chain” of this type of project, it comes with the Layer2, it will block the underlying infrastructure chain directly divided into 2 layers: Layer1 not only pay close attention to efficiency, attention to safety, and do the optimization for the upper chain; Layer2 focus on efficiency and ease of use.
So, the hierarchical network block chain was born, only the final state of the virtual machine on the chain, rather than the information transmission chain, which is quite valuable ideas.
At the same time, because the block chain project is native Layer2, in the design of token model, will be a lot easier, does not appear when the “lightning network why not use ETH, and to send a money” this embarrassing situation.
Distributed application of a new paradigm of 1.
NERVOS designed a distributed platform completely decoupled, allowing multi path scalability, transaction uncertainty and low local delay. This brings a superior user experience for mobile and web DApps.
2. ready for the real application
Nervos has built-in support for identity and flexible DApps trust model can build trust based on real world affairs.
3. in the existing system interoperability
Nervos provides a standard interface for the client and a group of state transition semantics. The existing systems do not have to change their language, moving their business rules, or break their engineering best practices, integrated with the public the blockchain world class.
Nervos is the core member of the etheric Fang launched Research team Janx, the mobile node optimization, support distributed identity protocol and the simultaneous launch of the side chain, let the real landing block chain technology.
Co founder Xie Hanjian is the founder of Cryptape, former researcher and developer of Ethernet square foundation, focused on CasperSharding, co-founder of ethfans.org, and the former architect Peatio. Co founder Lv Guoning is a former chief technology officer of imToken (the world’s largest Ethernet square wallet), former chief technology officer of Yunbi, and co-founder of ruby-china.org.
7 2018, Nervos Network announced the acquisition of 2800 million private round of financing, investors include many well-known institutions at home and abroad, including Sequoia Capital Fund and the universal Chinese blockchain led Party voted for the current round of domestic, in the VC, including the latitude Chinese Jiuhe venture, ceyuan ventures, forright capital, imToken, spark pool, letter, now pay etc.. Europe and the United States well-known institutions including the Polychain Capital, 1kx Blockchain, Capital and Multicoin also participated in the investment.
Although at this stage the blockchain public chain is very competitive, Nervos community activity remains to be improved, the project schedule is not dominant, but Nervos has changed the underlying data structure of the existing layered architecture through the chain chain calculation consensus, both to protect the blockchain network security and to the center and greatly enhance the parallel computing ability, performance optimization, solves the scalability problem of Ethernet square “”. The following can cross bitcoin and etheric Fang two mountains, will have to see whether Nervos has the ability to solve the difficulties and build market development block block chain application difficult two problems.
With five Thunder, the speed of Thunderella double strand consensus mechanism
Thunder is a public fast chain is not entirely dependent on the block chain, and scalable, the pursuit of “consensus” and “agreement”. It is a Thunderella algorithm to build the next generation of high speed and low delay block chain token system and application based on the development platform, is to solve the performance bottleneck and function expansion of the first generation, second-generation system exists as the most important task of the next generation of the blockchain underlying technology platform, consensus algorithm using self designing, can help existing block chain project to improve transaction processing speed of more than 1000 times.
1. Thunder consensus protocol Thunderella, which is a new provably secure consensus protocol overcomes two major bottlenecks of traditional block chain: throughput and confirm the time.
The 2. consensus mechanism of Thunderella applied to the fast and slow chain chain, effective combination of them can make transactions faster and confirm the attack or a large amount of trading volume does not need to worry about the impact of the collapse or congestion, because you can use a slow chain for reliable recovery. The problem can be better to deal with the network expansion.
However, this mode of network environment and reliability requirements are very high, which is why BFT (the most basic traditional Byzantine fault tolerance) is used for chain alliance with license, rather than license chain such as BTC and ETH did not adopt the reason.
“This type of project of double chain mixed consensus structure”, according to the operation mode of network switching mechanism through a combination of speed, the realization of “environment friendly instant response, malicious environment safety”.
For example, Thunder Token Thunderella will be the consensus mechanism, the network environment is divided into friendly (fast) and malicious (slow).
In a friendly environment (more than 3/4 honest nodes, honest and online), the whole network is in fast mode, the use of BFT, only one round of voting, less than one second of time can confirm the transaction; and to the environment when detecting malicious (malicious nodes greater than 1/4, less than 1/2), the basic block chain mode to the network automatically switch (can be BTC, ETH or other blocks, to ensure the safety chain) and the real data in the network, and automatically switch back to the fast recovery mode.
Thunder CEO Chris Wang is the world’s well-known entrepreneur, the founder of the Playdom SNS is the world’s leading game developers, 2010 Playdom will be sold for $563 million to Disney. Chris and Wang or Alibaba, early investors Glassdoor and FlipKart.
The chief scientist Elaine Shi, scientist Rafael Pass are cryptographic protocols, cryptographic protocol, consensus and core areas of game theory expert, co-founder is also well-known research institutions IC3 block chain.
Thunder investors include before hatching success to invest in IOST, DATA, Lambda and other famous block chain project metropolitan capital, FBG Vlane, Capital, fire currency etc..
Thunder token has been known for its strong endorsement of the academic consensus, aims to use Thunderella algorithm to solve the blockchain “Impossible Triangle”, which satisfy to the center, security and scalability. There is little information about the market publicity publicity materials, only Elaine Shi a speech video and a demonstration of the feasibility of the thesis, in this case has been a lot of capital sought after.
According to the idea of Thunder Toke, if the project can be successful landing, will greatly optimize the iron triangle problem block in the chain (scalability, to restrict each other, security center).
A TPS scheme compared to EOS, AE, ACT and other public chain proposed by Thunder is more simple and efficient for large-scale systems, while Thunder can be used to accelerate any existing block chain, can be Layer-1 scheme can also be Layer-2 scheme. But the project cycle is too long, too many dishes, many uncontrollable factors.
More than five projects have recently been several projects for the media and the rating agencies sought, but are currently not yet on the exchange began to circulate in the market of the two projects, both behind senior technical team and strong academic background support, especially Conflux, is a Chinese world only a Turing Award winner as Yao Qizhi the chief scientist, do trust endorsement for the. To solve the problem of MultiVAC main chain expansion of public use of technology, and put forward the concept of a different Yu Yun computing “elastic computing network”. Nervos hit with hierarchical block chain, allowing multi path scalability, low transaction uncertainty and local delay, performance optimization, solves the scalability problem of Ethernet square “”. Thunder innovation “double chain hybrid consensus structure” to solve the blockchain “Impossible Triangle”. These four projects are concentrated in the chain of scalability and performance improvement, and building more than the public cloud Blockcloud bottom chain, can provide more scalable, more secure and reliable support for the public problem chain, reduce network congestion, security vulnerabilities, so as to form a good ecological chain block. Especially when the 5G and LoT era, the development of the underlying network cannot support the application, then the role of Blockcloud cloud blocks begins.