This article comes from: Mars finance, author: Orchid chain, the Star daily is authorized to forward.
In December 1st, American Chinese physicists, lifelong professor of the Stanford University, academician of the American Academy of Sciences, and a foreign academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the founder of the capital of Dan Hua and Zhang Cheng, an independent director of the United States, died at the age of 55.
This article collate the lecture of Mr. Zhang Sheng:
Like the history of human beings, the history of the network can be summed up by “a long time and a long term.”
When I went to study in the United States in 1983, there was a giant called AT&T, which seemed never to fall, and my greatest dream was not to be a professor at the university after graduation, but to work in the Baer laboratory, because there had been 30 Nobel winners.
AT&T, who spends so much money on such a prize class, has monopolized all network resources to monopolize it.
Slowly, there was a new protocol, the network protocol. It is completely a centralization protocol that makes it possible to communicate completely between points and points. I can walk this road, I can also take another road, the road through Rome, the end can reach the result, no longer need the monopoly of the center.
Overnight, I thought the company that never fell down, disappeared.
It was once again after the competition that AT&T appeared, but when a new network technology appeared, it was time to score.
If everyone can communicate, everyone can create the content of communication, this content is widely scattered on the peripheral Internet, then I want to find a message, it will become very, very inconvenient.
So in this case, for a long time, there are some new centralization monopoly platforms, called Google and Facebook in the United States.
All the Great Companies in the history of human history must do not create new things themselves, but make a rearrangement of what you already have.
For example, oil companies, chemical companies, what do they do? Crude oil is made up of atoms and can be dug out directly from the ground. The only thing they do is to rearrange the atoms and turn them into other chemicals, such as the oil that has been refined.
What are these platforms for Google and Facebook?
It is to rearrange each person’s information, for example, Google, the first thing to do is to make an arrangement that makes it easy for us to find information. What these central platforms do is to restructure the content of the network and centralization.
This is a time for a long time, because of the new network protocol, AT&T fell, the emergence of CISCO, and the emergence of network resources dispersion, and a huge platform.
The block chain technology that appears today will also lead to a new era.
The revolutionary intensity of this era may be ten times and a hundredfold of the Internet revolution. The age of the Internet is only the time of information exchange, and the era of block chain has the value exchange, we can produce the market of data, each person has its own data, and then produce new value in the process of exchange.
This great time, I describe in a word, “In Math We Trust”.
We all understand that the value of money lies in consensus. Which of the human knowledge, which one is the most easy to reach the consensus? Obviously not economics, not law science, not politics, not chemistry, not biology, nor even physics. It is mathematics that is most likely to reach consensus.
It is the most natural way to use mathematics as a mechanism of trust. The era of real block chain is the building of trust between us on the basis of mathematics.
If I make a cube myself, it’s definitely not perfect. But if it is a mathematical form, the cube is fully symmetrical, every corner is exactly the same, each side is exactly the same, and each face is exactly the same.
The mathematical form is the most accurate, and in the precise sense, it is also the easiest to reach the consensus.
If you look at the deepest mysteries of the whole universe, then the most core formulas and standard models of physics in the universe are described with very, very, very subtle mathematics, most of which is created by Mr. Chen Ning Yang.
Since the fundamental laws of nature are described in mathematics, can we make the rules and trust of human society on the block of mathematics?
The combination of the public key and the private key is built on the number theory, and is built on a higher level number theory, called the elliptic curve.
As you may know, one of the biggest conjectures in mathematics, the law of ferma, is recently proved to be based on the elliptic curve.
This sounds very, very abstract mathematics, but every time we go shopping online today, we use wonderful math.
The other is the hash function. It has a unidirectional, anything that comes in and comes out a bunch of random numbers. It’s like a black hole, and the black hole is lost in any way, and all of them are random numbers.
Another is zero-knowledge proof. For example, I solved a problem, but I did not want to tell you my answer directly, but to convince you that I did solve the problem.
This is also a very wonderful mathematical problem, but it is solved. I can give you a bit of information, I solved this problem, but I don’t tell you any other information. This is very very useful for the whole data market, and I can give it a bit of bits and one bit, instead of giving it all out.
Two millionaires, one may be a billionaire, a millionaire, and a millionaire who do not want to publish their own property, but know who is more rich.
This can be calculated by Yao Qizhi, a professor at Tsinghua University, who gives only one bit of information to know who is richer.
I can never learn the wisdom of big data if I have the data. But I want to know the statistics, and others want to protect personal privacy, so there’s a very simple way to do it:
Deliberately add some noise to personal data, which makes it impossible for you to tell whether the data is your own personal data. After collecting these data, in the environment of large data, the noise counteracts each other, and the statistics I get are perfectly accurate, which is called differential privacy.
The last concept is called formal verification.
The greatest mathematical discovery of the last century was a proof of the incompleteness of mathematics. If I want to recommend a book to the students here, I think it is an ancient odd book, which tells the mathematical incomplete theorem, the artist’s painting and the composer, and the commonality between the three. This book is “Godel, Escher, Bach” (G.E.B).
These wonderful math can be used on the block chain and can be used to do Formal verification.
Because today we are in the era of open source, our smart contracts on the block chain today are entirely open source. But when the open source is written, people don’t understand it, even the experts don’t understand it.
So is there a mathematical program that tells you whether an intelligent contract is exactly what you want to do in your white paper? This is a very wonderful idea, using logic in mathematics.
There are two important trends in computer science, one is AI, one is block chain, and there is an inevitable coexistence relationship between them.
We have smart brains and smart algorithms, but the data are monopolized on the center of the platform, so that AI is not easy to learn. You’ve come up with an algorithm, and you don’t know where the data is.
But with the block chain, with the data market, back to the time I just said, we can own all the data.
In this way, I have contributed part of my personal data in the case of protecting my personal privacy. In the era of block chain, I can get a certain reward, and we also have the power to protect its own privacy. Having the value of privacy, and if I have a value, I will make a contribution to the AI learning, which will inevitably bring about a sudden change in the AI.
In addition to a sudden change in the AI, the society can also make a rapid progress.
What is the contribution of the block chain to the society? At least I see it can bring greater justice to society. Our society today has an unfair place, mainly because of our discrimination against the minority, in the Nazi empire in that year, the discrimination against the Jews.
And if we come to the data market in the era of block chain, this will be completely different. For example, I have a AI algorithm, which is 90% accurate, I want to make it more accurate, 99% precision, it needs machine learning. So what do I need to do?
First of all the data I have to learn is not like the data I had learned before. If it was 99% data, they had represented the majority, but to be more accurate, if 99% became 99.9%, it was the data that was completely different from the previous ones. The more different from the previous, the more different from the public, the more valuable data.
So if in a fully owned market, people will pay more tokens to those minority data, which will bring social justice and turn the ugly duckling into a white swan. Because the ugly duckling is not ugly, it is not the same as other people, but in this world, the more different from others, the more it gets.
Another great idea is to have all the individual’s data owned by the individual.
The most necessary data for a person is genetic data and medical data. The data is owned by a person and must be a supreme standard. After individuals have data, they are worried about nothing, just to protect their privacy all day, and not to learn the concerns behind genetic data through large data and artificial intelligence.
What we want to know, for example, is that some of the diseases are based on a mutation of what genes, but once we have all the individual’s genetic information and medical information, we have a very effective data market.
How does the virtual currency on the block chain develop? This can correspond to the current monetary structure in the society.
The current monetary structure is M0, M1, M2, M3 and so on, and the derivatives can be established at the bottom of the bottom.
I think the block chain like bitcoin, because it corresponds to gold, corresponds to one of the most universal values, that is, the currency of M0, equivalent to saying that under this system, any two unacquainted people in the world can form a transaction. If you’ve been acquainted for ten years, and not two people that don’t know each other, we can trade with M1.
I think the lightning network is in line with this kind of nature, we two people trading, mutual trust between each other, but still need the trust mechanism to strengthen. When we sign up, we mortgage some of the money on the bitcoin, the block chain, and every transaction after it, regularly to the block chain to show it once.
The development of the entire virtual currency is bound to be like the development of the current world currency. In M0, or bitcoin, or greener bitcoin, the lightning network can be built, and the market can be predicted.
One of our current financial products is futures. Futures are the prediction of the future, but now the futures will be able to really guarantee us through the court, and after we use the block chain, we can testify to the Internet users all over the world.
All of these network systems help each other to make it more effective, but the current billing system is not very effective, and I have provided you with some bandwidth, but not enough return.
With a block chain, a very fair and accurate record can be made, so that the entire network will work more and more effectively.
From 4G to 5G and then to 6G, there must be a network running in it.
I like Newton’s “mathematical principles of natural philosophy”, and I personally have the first edition of this book, published in 1723. To understand all the natural sciences with the principle of mathematics, this is the greatness of Newton.
In the block chain, the bottom is the mathematics, the middle is the law, the upper level is the economic behavior.
Social science has never been able to find fundamental mathematical principles, and it may not be easy to find, because many economic behaviors are irrational in human beings.
In the era of block chain, the most fundamental economic behavior is the mechanism of trust, which is based on mathematics.
We can imagine that the whole economic order will be changed and the whole relationship of production will be changed, but the core of it is that there is a cornerstone, the principle of mathematics.
Once we have mathematics, we can certainly sum up an immutable law that makes our economic system more effective, so that our social science and natural science can reach a great unity.